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The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum

The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum

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The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum

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  1. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum

  2. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth II. Temperature III. Water Chemistry IV. Pressure

  3. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth Typical depths: 1,000 - 10,000 feet / 300-3000 meters Deepest petroleum well to date: BP’s 2009 Tiber discovery well in Gulf of Mexico 35,055 ft / 10,685 m sub-seafloor in 4132 ft / 1259 m of water in Lower Tertiary strata Drilled by the Deepwater Horizon rig destroyed in April 2010. Deepest (?) onshore petroleum well GHK #1-27 Bertha Rogers in Washita County, Oklahoma (Anadarko Basin) (1974) 31,441 feet / 9583 m, P&A in molten sulfur Deepest drillhole to date: Kola Superdeep Borehole in Kola Peninsula, Russia (1989) 40,230 ft / 12,262 m (drilled non-rotary with a mud-motor bit) Temperature Pressure Water Chemistry

  4. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

  5. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Depth of wells is not evenly distributed: BLACKWELL, DAVID, and MARIA RICHARDS, SMU  Dept of Geological Sciences, Calibration of the AAPG Geothermal Survey of North America BHT Data Base smu.edu/geothermal/BHT/BHT.htm

  6. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth Typical depths: 1,000 - 10,000 feet / 300-3000 meters Deepest petroleum well to date: BP’s 2009 Tiber discovery well in Gulf of Mexico 35,055 ft / 10,685 m sub-seafloor in 4132 ft / 1259 m of water in Lower Tertiary strata Drilled by the Deepwater Horizon rig destroyed in April 2010. Deepest (?) onshore petroleum well GHK #1-27 Bertha Rogers in Washita County, Oklahoma (Anadarko Basin) (1974) 31,441 feet / 9583 m, P&A in molten sulfur Deepest drillhole to date: Kola Superdeep Borehole in Kola Peninsula, Russia (1989) 40,230 ft / 12,262 m (drilled non-rotary with a mud-motor bit) Temperature Pressure Water Chemistry

  7. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth Typical depths: 1,000 - 10,000 feet / 300-3000 meters Deepest petroleum well to date: BP’s 2009 Tiber discovery well in Gulf of Mexico 35,055 ft / 10,685 m in 4132 ft / 1259 m of water (30,923 feet subseafloor) in Lower Tertiary strata Drilled by the Deepwater Horizon rig destroyed in April 2010. Deepest (?) onshore petroleum well GHK #1-27 Bertha Rogers in Washita County, Oklahoma (Anadarko Basin) (1974) 31,441 feet / 9583 m, P&A in molten sulfur Deepest drillhole to date: Kola Superdeep Borehole in Kola Peninsula, Russia (1989) 40,230 ft / 12,262 m (drilled non-rotary with a mud-motor bit) Temperature Pressure Water Chemistry

  8. Andy Inglis

  9. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

  10. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

  11. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology BP’s Tiber discovery well

  12. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth Typical depths: 1,000 - 10,000 feet / 300-3000 meters Deepest petroleum well to date: BP’s 2009 Tiber discovery well in Gulf of Mexico 35,055 ft / 10,685 m in 4132 ft / 1259 m of water (30,923 feet subseafloor) in Lower Tertiary strata Drilled by Transocean’s Deepwater Horizon rig destroyed in April 2010. Deepest (?) onshore petroleum well GHK #1-27 Bertha Rogers in Washita County, Oklahoma (Anadarko Basin) (1974) 31,441 feet / 9583 m, P&A in molten sulfur Deepest drillhole to date: Kola Superdeep Borehole in Kola Peninsula, Russia (1989) 40,230 ft / 12,262 m (drilled non-rotary with a mud-motor bit) Temperature Pressure Water Chemistry

  13. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth Typical depths: 1,000 - 10,000 feet / 300-3000 meters Deepest petroleum well to date: BP’s 2009 Tiber discovery well in Gulf of Mexico 35,055 ft / 10,685 m in 4132 ft / 1259 m of water (30,923 feet subseafloor) in Lower Tertiary strata Drilled by the Deepwater Horizon rig destroyed in April 2010. Deepest (?) onshore petroleum well GHK #1-27 Bertha Rogers in Washita County, Oklahoma (Anadarko Basin) (1974) 31,441 feet / 9583 m, P&A in molten sulfur. Deepest drillhole to date: Kola Superdeep Borehole in Kola Peninsula, Russia (1989) 40,230 ft / 12,262 m (drilled non-rotary with a mud-motor bit) Temperature Pressure Water Chemistry

  14. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth Typical depths: 1,000 - 10,000 feet / 300-3000 meters Deepest petroleum well to date: BP’s 2009 Tiber discovery well in Gulf of Mexico 35,055 ft / 10,685 m in 4132 ft / 1259 m of water (30,923 feet subseafloor) in Lower Tertiary strata Drilled by the Deepwater Horizon rig destroyed in April 2010. Deepest (?) onshore petroleum well GHK #1-27 Bertha Rogers in Washita County, Oklahoma (Anadarko Basin) (1974) 31,441 feet / 9583 m, P&A in molten sulfur. Deepest drillhole to date: Kola Superdeep Borehole in Kola Peninsula, Russia (1989) 40,230 ft / 12,262 m (drilled non-rotary with a mud-motor bit) Temperature Pressure Water Chemistry

  15. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth Deepest petroleum well to date: BP’s 2009 Tiber discovery well in Gulf of Mexico 35,055 ft / 10,685 m Deepest (?) onshore petroleum well GHK #1-27 Bertha Rogers in Washita County, Oklahoma 31,441 feet / 9583 m, P&A in molten sulfur. Deepest drillhole to date: Kola Superdeep Borehole in Kola Peninsula, Russia (1989) 40,230 ft / 12,262 m (drilled non-rotary with a mud-motor bit: With a lot of rounding: Deepest* onshore petroleum well: 30 thousand feet Deepest* offshore petroleum well: 35 thousand feet Deepest* well/borehole of any sort: 40 thousand feet * Greatest TD

  16. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth II. Temperature Relevant range: 60-250°C Geothermal gradients: 5-100 °C/km Typically ~25 °C/km Bottom-hole Temperatures (BHTs) Significance: (past) Thermal maturation of kerogen to yield petroleum Oil window: ~65-160°C Decreased resistivity of formation waters Degradation / melting of drill bit Pressure Water Chemistry

  17. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth II. Temperature Relevant range: 60-250°C Geothermal gradients: 5-100 °C/km Typically ~25 °C/km Bottom-hole Temperatures (BHTs) Significance: (past) Thermal maturation of kerogen to yield petroleum Oil window: ~65-160°C Decreased resistivity of formation waters Degradation / melting of drill bit Pressure Water Chemistry (Lowest T of oil generation to ~metamorphism)

  18. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth II. Temperature Relevant range: 60-250°C Geothermal gradients: 5-100 °C/km Typically ~25 °C/km Bottom-hole Temperatures (BHTs) Significance: (past) Thermal maturation of kerogen to yield petroleum Oil window: ~65-160°C Decreased resistivity of formation waters Degradation / melting of drill bit Pressure Water Chemistry

  19. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Geothermal gradients: From smu.edu/geothermal/heatflow/heatflow.htm

  20. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Geothermal gradients: Both are from smu.edu/geothermal/heatflow/heatflow.htm Heatflow (at right) = conductivity x gradient (at left)

  21. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

  22. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

  23. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Geothermal gradients: Persian/Arabian Gulf Alsharhan & Nairn 1997

  24. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Geothermal gradients: Alsharhan & Nairn 1997

  25. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

  26. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth II. Temperature Relevant range: 60-250°C Geothermal gradients: 5-100 °C/km Typically ~25 °C/km Bottom-hole Temperatures (BHTs) Measured during logging, well after circulation has stopped. Significance: (past) Thermal maturation of kerogen to yield petroleum Oil window: ~65-160°C Decreased resistivity of formation waters Degradation / melting of drill bit Pressure Water Chemistry

  27. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth II. Temperature Relevant range: 60-250°C Geothermal gradients: 5-100 °C/km Typically ~25 °C/km Bottom-hole Temperatures (BHTs) Measured during logging, well after circulation has stopped. Significance: (past) Thermal maturation of kerogen to yield petroleum Oil window: ~65-160°C Decreased resistivity of formation waters Degradation / melting of drill bit Pressure Water Chemistry

  28. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

  29. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

  30. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology Geothermal gradient = 5 (215-32) - 20 9 10,095 / 3281 = 26.5 °C/km

  31. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth II. Temperature Relevant range: 60-250°C Geothermal gradients: 5-100 °C/km Typically ~25 °C/km Bottom-hole Temperatures (BHTs) Measured during logging, well after circulation has stopped. Significance of temperature: (past) Thermal maturation of kerogen to yield petroleum Oil window: ~65-160°C Decreased resistivity of formation waters Degradation / melting of drill bit Pressure Water Chemistry

  32. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

  33. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

  34. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth II. Temperature Relevant range: 60-250°C Geothermal gradients: 5-100 °C/km Typically ~25 °C/km Bottom-hole Temperatures (BHTs) Measured during logging, well after circulation has stopped. Significance of temperature: (past) Thermal maturation of kerogen to yield petroleum Oil window: ~65-160°C Decreased resistivity of formation waters Degradation / melting of drill bit Pressure Water Chemistry

  35. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology North 1985

  36. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth II. Temperature Relevant range: 60-250°C Geothermal gradients: 5-100 °C/km Typically ~25 °C/km Bottom-hole Temperatures (BHTs) Measured during logging, well after circulation has stopped. Significance of temperature: (past) Thermal maturation of kerogen to yield petroleum Oil window: ~65-160°C Diagenetic reactions that destroy porosity Decreased resistivity of formation waters Degradation / melting of drill bit Pressure Water Chemistry *Diagenesis: the physical and chemical modification of sediments that turns them into sedimentary rocks, including but not limited to compaction (lessening of bulk volume) and cementation (infiling of pores with minerals).

  37. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology North 1985

  38. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth II. Temperature Relevant range: 60-250°C Geothermal gradients: 5-100 °C/km Typically ~25 °C/km Bottom-hole Temperatures (BHTs) Measured during logging, well after circulation has stopped. Significance of temperature: (past) Thermal maturation of kerogen to yield petroleum Oil window: ~65-160°C Diagenetic reactions that destroy porosity Decreased resistivity of formation waters Degradation / melting of drill bit Pressure Water Chemistry

  39. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth II. Temperature Relevant range: 60-250°C Geothermal gradients: 5-100 °C/km Typically ~25 °C/km Bottom-hole Temperatures (BHTs) Measured during logging, well after circulation has stopped. Significance of temperature: (past) Thermal maturation of kerogen to yield petroleum Oil window: ~65-160°C Diagenetic reactions that destroy porosity Decreased resistivity of formation waters Degradation / melting of drill bit Pressure Water Chemistry

  40. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth II. Temperature III. Water Chemistry Increasing total dissolved solids / salinity with depth Thus increasing density with depth Cl- typically the dominant anion Na+ and Ca2+ the dominant cations

  41. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology sw North 1985

  42. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth II. Temperature III. Water Chemistry Increasing total dissolved solids / salinity with depth Thus increasing density with depth Cl- typically the dominant anion Na+ and Ca2+ the dominant cations

  43. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

  44. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth II. Temperature III. Water Chemistry Increasing total dissolved solids / salinity with depth Thus increasing density with depth Cl- typically the dominant anion Na+ and Ca2+ the dominant cations

  45. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

  46. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

  47. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology The Subsurface Environment(s) of Petroleum I. Depth II. Temperature III. Water Chemistry Increasing total dissolved solids / salinity with depth Thus increasing density with depth Cl- typically the dominant anion Na+ and Ca2+ the dominant cations

  48. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology North 1985

  49. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

  50. University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology