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Introduction To Computer System . جامعة أم القرى قسم السنة التحضيريه اعداد: أعضاء هيئة التدريس. Computer Generations. First Second Third Fourth. Computer Generations. The First Transistor (1948). IBM 360 Computer System. IBM 704. Used discrete transistors. IBM 709 Mainframe.

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introduction to computer system

Introduction To Computer System

جامعة أم القرى

قسم السنة التحضيريه

اعداد: أعضاء هيئة التدريس

computer generations
Computer Generations
  • First
  • Second
  • Third
  • Fourth
ibm 704
IBM 704

Used discrete transistors

ibm 709 mainframe
IBM 709 Mainframe

Last of the

vacuum

tube

computers,

c. 1959

digital equipment corp
Digital Equipment Corp

Left: DEC PDP-8, c. 1965

Right: DEC PDP-11, c. 1970

computer
Computer

What is the Computer ?

The Computer is a set of independent physical components and devices (Hardware), which have a specific job to do for each one and working together by Software to make up the computer system.

Computer perform three main operations:

computer classifications types
Computer Classifications (types)
  • Microcomputer
  • Minicomputer
  • Mainframe
  • Supercomputer
microcomputer
Microcomputer
  • Users: One
  • Speed: Slow
  • Price: $500 - $3,000
  • Size: desktop or smaller
  • Examples: IBM PC, Apple ][, Apple Macintosh, Imac
  • “personal computers”
minicomputer
Minicomputer
  • Users: 2 - 50
  • Speed: Faster
  • Price: $10,000 - $250,000
  • Size: file cabinet
  • Examples: HP 9000

DEC VAX

  • “departmental computers”
mainframe computer
Mainframe Computer
  • Users: 50 +
  • Speed: Fast
  • Price: $500,000 - millions
  • Size: refrigerator-sized on up
  • Examples: IBM 3090, Unisys 2200
  • company-wide (“enterprise”)
supercomputer
Supercomputer
  • Users: a few
  • Speed: very, very fast
  • Price: $ millions
  • Size: room
  • Examples: Cray, Fujitsu
  • scientific uses
understand the terms intelligent and dumb terminal
Understand the Terms Intelligent and Dumb Terminal.

An intelligent terminal, for example a PC: -

Performs a lot of the processing locally

You could use a PC, linked to a mainframe

A dumb terminal: -

Has very limited processing capabilities itself, but allows you to connect to a large powerful computer such as a mainframe.

When you process your data from the dumb terminal, it is the mainframe at the other end of the network that is performing all the calculations.

slide16

Look inside the computer

SOFTWARE

HARDWARE

computers are made of
Computersare made of
  • HARDWARE
  • SOFTWARE
hardware19
Hardware

The parts of computer itself (tangible objects ) including :

  • CPU (or Processor) and Primary memory (or Main Memory)
  • Input devices i.e the keyboard and mouse
  • Output devices
  • Storage devices
slide21

Hardware

  • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
  • Input units
  • Output units
  • Memory (Main or Primary Memory & Secondary or Auxiliary Memory)
slide22

Components of a Computer System

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Data

control unit (CU)

Memory

output

units

Arithmetic

logic

Unit (ALU)

RAM

Input

units

ROM

Auxiliary

Memory

Information/Knowledge

hardware organization

Input Devices ...

Hardware Organization

CPU

memory

motherboard

hard drive

slide24

Input Devices

  • Translate data from form that humans understand to one that the computer can work with
  • Most common are keyboard and mouse
examples of input devices
Examples of Input Devices

1.Keyboard

2. Mouse

3. Scanner

4. Pre-storage Devise (Disk, CD’s, … etc.)

5. Optical mark recognition (Light Pin , Bar code scanners)

6. Microphone

7. Joystick .

examples of input devices 2
Examples of Input Devices(2)

8. Point and Draw devices

9. Trackball

10. Touchpad

11. Touch screen

12. Magnetic stripes and smart cars.

13. Digital Cameras

hardware organization28
Hardware Organization

CPU

memory

hard drive

غير مطلوبة فقط للفهم

slide29

Mother-Board (or Main Board)

غير مطلوبة فقط للفهم

غير مطلوبة فقط للفهم

CPU

RAM

ROM

hardware organization30
Hardware Organization

CPU

memory

motherboard

hard drive

غير مطلوبة فقط للفهم

slide31

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • A specific chip or the processor
  • a CPU's performance is determined by the rest of the computers circuitry and chips.
  • The Central Processing Unit (CPU) performs the actual processing of data
  • The speed (clock speed) of CPU measured by Hertz (MHz)
slide32
The CPU consists of :
  • Control Unit (CU)
  • Arithmetic and Logical Unit (ALU)
  • Some Registers
central processing unit cpu
Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

Control Unit (CU)

Arithmetic Logic

Unit (ALU)

Registers

slide34
The Control Unit (CU) :

coordinates all activities of the computer by:

  • Determining which operations to perform and in what order to carry them out.
  • The CU transmits coordinating control signals to other computer components.
slide35
The ALU :

consists of electronic circuitry to perform:

  • Arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication and division)
  • Logical operations (and, or, not, …) and to make some comparisons (less-than, equal, … etc.)
hardware organization36
Hardware Organization

CPU

memory

motherboard

hard drive

غير مطلوبة فقط للفهم

primary memory
Primary Memory
  • Memory (fast, expensive, short-term memory): Enables a computer to store, at least temporarily, data, programs, and intermediate results.
  • Two general parts:
    • RAM
    • ROM
know how computer memory is measured
Know How Computer Memory Is Measured

Bit

All computers work on a binary numbering system, i.e. they process data in one's or zero's. This 1 or 0 level of storage is called a bit.

Byte

A byte consists of eight bits.

Kilobyte

A kilobyte (KB) consists of 1024 bytes.

Megabyte

A megabyte (MB) consists of 1024 kilobytes.

Gigabyte

A gigabyte (GB) consists of 1024 megabytes.

ram main memory
RAM (Main Memory)
  • its a primary storage or random access memory (RAM).
  • it temporarily holds data and programs for use during processing (volatile)
  • Any information stored in RAM is lost when the computer is turned off.
  • RAM is the memory that the computer uses to temporarily store the information as it is being processed. The more information being processed the more RAM the computer needs.
  • RAM consists of locations or cells. Each cell has a unique address which distinguishes it from other cells.
rom read only memory
ROM: Read Only Memory

ROM is part of memory

  • Programmed at manufacturing time
  • Its contents cannot be changed by users
  • It is a permanent store

Q: Mention some examples of ROM?

A: (PROM & EPROM )

other kind of memory
Other Kind of Memory
  • PROM: Programmable Read Only Memory.
  • EPROM: Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory
  • Cache Memory
  • Registers: not part of the main memory.

Q : Registers are part of “ …… ” ?

slide43

Secondary Storage

  • Stores data and programs permanently: its retained after the power is turned off
  • Examples
    • Hard Drive (Hard Disk)
    • Located outside the CPU, but most often contained in the system cabinet
    • Floppy Disk
    • Optical Laser Discs
      • CD-ROM, CD-RW, and DVD
slide45

Common Secondary Media

  • Diskettes
    • Data represented as magnetic spots on removable flexible plastic disks
    • Most common size is 3 1/2 inches, in a rigid plastic case
    • Disk drive holds the diskette, reads or retrieves the data and writes or stores data
slide46

Common Secondary Media

  • Hard drive
    • Data is represented magnetically as with diskettes
    • Normally more than one rigid platter in a sealed unit
    • These disks are not removable
    • Significantly more capacity and faster operating than diskettes
optical laser discs
Optical Laser Discs
  • CD ROM & DVD’s
      • Data is represented as pits and lands
      • Some kinds are read only (CD-ROM) and some Kinds are rewritable (CD-RW)
      • Significantly more capacity and faster operating thandiskettes

DVD: Digital Video Disk

slide49

Common Secondary Media

  • tapes
  • Panasonic's LS120 3.5 inch diskettes
  • Iomega's Zip & Jazz disks
  • VCR tape (Video Cassette Recorder )
  • Flash USB disks
  • MMC (Multi Media Card )
  • SD
hardware organization50
Hardware Organization

CPU

memory

hard drive

غير مطلوبة فقط للفهم

Output…

slide51

CPU

Output Devices

  • Pieces of equipment that translate the processed informationfrom the CPUinto a form that humans can understand.

Processed

information

output devices
Output Devices
  • Monitors
  • Printers
    • Dot matrix printers
    • Ink jet printers
    • Laser printers
  • Sound Blasters (Sound Card By Creative Lab)
  • Controlling other devices
slide53

Software

  • The instructionsthattellthecomputerwhat to do
  • Application Software - helps end-users perform general purpose tasks
  • System Software - enables application software to interact with the computer
system software

System Software

The most important

System Software

is the

Operating System

Examples of operating systems:

Windows XP, DOS, Apple, UNIX

slide55

System Software

  • The software that controls everything that happens in a computer.
  • Background software, manages the computer’s internal resources

Resources examples : CPU, RAM , I/O devices, …

slide56
All hardware and software are under the control of the operating system.

Among other things, the operating system:

  • Determines how valuable RAM is allotted to programs.
  • Performs tasks related to file management.
  • Sets priorities for handling tasks.
  • Manages the flow of instructions, data and information to and from the processor (CPU).
slide57

Examples ofMicrocomputer Operating System Software

  • DOS - original standard for IBM compatibles
  • Windows - a graphical operating environment
    • Windows VISTA, XP, millennium, 2000, 98, and 95

Continue …

slide58

Examples ofMicrocomputer Operating System Software Cont.

  • Windows NT - for powerful workstations & networks
  • OS/2 - competitor to Windows 2000
  • Macintosh Operating System
  • Unix - originally for minicomputers, now used on microcomputers and Internet servers
  • Question: List some examples of operating systems ?
slide59

Application Software

Packaged

Custom

  • Packaged - “off the shelf”, pre-written programs ( General purpose)
  • Custom - written for an organization’s specific purpose (Special purpose)
slide60

Application Software – Basic Tools

  • Word processors– example: Microsoft word
  • Spreadsheets-- example: Microsoft Excel
  • Database managers-- example: Microsoft Access
  • Graphics-- example: Photoshop

Spreadsheets: Computer software that allows the user to enter columns and rows of numbers in a accounting book like format.