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Abnormal Psychology Hour 1 and 2: How has our perception and the treatment of mental illness changed over time? • Early theories and treatment of mental illness • A brief history of insanity • Changes over time in the definition of mental • illness • The DSMIV • Modern constructs of mental illness Modern approaches to the causes and treatment of mental illness • Biological approach • Cognitive approach • Psychoanalytic approach • Humanistic approach • Behavioural approach
Early theories of mental illness (1400 A.D.approx) • Natural vs. supernatural ailments • Witchcraft as causation
London’s Bethlehem (Bedlam) Asylum • Charging admission to see the “lunatics” Early treatment of mental illness (1600 A.D.approx)
Changes over time in the definitions of mental illness Early classification of mental illness (1800 A.D.) Seven categories of mental illness • Mania • Melancholia • Monomania • Paresis • Dementia • Dipsomania • Epilepsy Modern classification of mental illness • The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual • of Mental Disorders (The DSM)
Modern constructs of mental illness and the DSM • What was once “deviant” is now normal • Homosexuality, nymphomania and masturbation What was once normal is now “deviant” • The Jerusalem syndrome.
Modern approaches to the causes and treatment of mental illness • Biological approach • Cognitive approach • Psychoanalytic approach • Humanistic approach • Behavioural approach
Modern approaches to the causes and treatment of mental illness Biological approach • Causes • Assumes disorders are based on physical causes • Based on the medical model • Imbalance of neurotransmitters • e.g., too much dopamine: schizophrenia • too little serotonin : depression • too little GABA: anxiety • Treatment • Drugs • Antipsychotics to relieve hallucinations • Anti depressants to relieve depression • Tranquilizers to relieve anxiety
Modern approaches to the causes and treatment of mental illness Cognitive approach • Causes • Disorders are caused by faulty thought processes • e.g., pessimistic or catastrophic thinking • Treatment • Change the patient’s negative thought process • Thought stopping • Rational-emotive therapy
Modern approaches to the causes and treatment of mental illness Psychoanalytic approach • Causes • Abnormal behaviour is a result of the • conflict-anxiety-defense–symptoms sequence • that begins in early childhood • Personality characteristics of the parents • (in the case of schizophrenia) • Treatment • Psychotherapy - helping patients gain insight • into the underlying causes of behaviour.
Modern approaches to the causes and treatment of mental illness Humanist approach • Causes • Anxiety and depression are due to the discrepancy • between the current self and the ideal self. • Focuses on the anxiety or depression of normal • individual • Never seriously addressed the causes of severe • disorders or developed a comprehensive theories • of abnormal behaviour. e.g., Schizophrenia is not • a disorder, just an alternative form of adjustment • Treatment • Help the individual close the gap between the • current self and the ideal self
Modern approaches to the causes and treatment of mental illness Behavioural approach • Causes • Faulty maladaptive learning • Behaviour is the problem, not physiology • No underlying cause • Treatment • Application of the laws of classical and operant • conditioning • Behaviour modification • Systematic desensitization • Flooding • Aversive conditioning