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Philosophy as a Foundation for Staff Development. Essentialism basic truths exist outside of scientific proof basic task is to identify these truths external experts would be most knowledgeable

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Philosophy as a Foundation for Staff Development

  • Essentialism

    • basic truths exist outside of scientific proof

    • basic task is to identify these truths

    • external experts would be most knowledgeable

    • teachers need to be involved but the real curriculum comes from outside their knowledge base within the classroom

  • Experimentalism

    • reality can only be established through experimentation in the classroom or school

    • everything is situation specific

    • there are no external truths

    • curriculum would be developed based on what works in the teachers classroom and school

  • Existentialism

    • all meaning exists only in individuals interpretation of the world

    • human dignity, self-worth, intuition, and self-determination are paramount

    • curriculum development is decentralized

    • existing knowledge only provides guidance to the teacher and school


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Currently Used Models of Evaluation

  • Madeline Hunter

  • Richard Manatt

  • James Popham

  • Michael Scriven

  • Thomas McGreal

  • Art Costa and Robert Garmston

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Madeline Hunter

  • Assumptions

    • Teaching is a learned profession, not a genetic endowment

    • Principles governing effective teaching can be described, taught, observed, and documented

    • Research based knowledge is stressed

    • All teachers should continue to grow

    • Peer coaching is to provide a formative process of supervision

    • District’s evaluation is summative

      • Based on many samples of teacher behavior

      • Conducted by trained administrator (50 hours min)

      • Should be based on stipulated criteria known by the teacher and administrator

  • Pre-evaluation conferences are not needed

  • Classroom observations consist of script taping

  • After the observation, the evaluator should infer reasons for success or lack of success

  • Staff Development consists of teaching effective practices to teachers (transfer, memory, rate and degree, 7-step lesson, etc.)

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Richard Manatt

  • Little consideration of the differences between formative and summative evaluations. Only that summative occurs after formative efforts.

  • Establish criteria

    • based on research, practice, local selection from large data base provided by Manatt (from items claimed to discriminate among teachers)

      • maintains effective relationships with students

      • prepares appropriate evaluation activities

      • demonstrates sensitivity in relating to students

  • Set standards

    • typically involves setting descriptive levels of performance and linking to ranking or rating systems (meets, exceeds,far exceeds, not satisfactory, etc.)

  • Conduct orientation, pre-observational conferences, classroom observations

  • Identify teacher strength and weaknesses (supervisor generally does this)

  • Write summative evaluation

  • Set written growth targets (formative evaluation)

  • The marginal teacher is handled by a separate system

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James Popham

  • The blending of formative and summative evaluation is a grave mistake

    • must be done by different individuals

    • trust cannot be achieved by the principal

    • two systems must be total separate

  • Process-focused systems based on research are unsupportable

  • No research exists that provides concrete guidelines that will always work

  • Formative evaluations must be based on growth that teachers bring about

  • Summative evaluations should be based on professional judgment

    • pooled judgment of at least three trained professionals

    • multiple sources of evidence

    • training program for evaluators is essential

  • Typically used in university setting

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Michael Scriven

  • Beliefs

    • Views teachers as professionals who retain a great deal of autonomy in the way they execute their duties

    • A fair summative evaluation system does not have to include a formative section (enriched system)

    • Current research cannot be exclusively used as a base for evaluation

    • Pre-post measurement does not establish that the teacher caused the growth and is therefore of limited use

  • Advocates Duty-Based Evaluations

    • includes classroom performance but also other typical obligations

    • uses multiple measures to estimate the extent to which these teacher duties have been done well

    • focuses on merit (quality and quantity of teacher materials, student learning, professionalism, and ethics) not worth (multiple certifications, knowledge of community, etc.)

    • minimal level of achievement on all duties is required

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Thomas McGreal’s Model

  • Identify a framework for teaching

  • Establish clear minimal criteria

  • Separate formative from summative evaluation

  • Formative evaluation practices should involve individual goal-setting activities that occur between teachers and administrators

  • Different types of goals depending on the teacher

  • Goal setting is a cooperative process

  • Goals based on teaching framework

  • Collect data that makes sense

  • No ranking or rating scales

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Costa and Garmston

  • Beliefs

    • teachers should not be evaluated against existing lists of competencies

    • teachers should be viewed as professionals who exercise judgment about what is appropriate--skilled autonomous, professional decision makers

    • teachers who function at higher cognitive levels produce higher achievement

    • teachers should be measured against their level of cognitive development level

  • Advocates

    • growth focused evaluations (formative)

    • dismissal only if cognitive level is low at tenure decision time (summative)

    • teacher self-evaluation or peer evaluation

    • individual staff development based on cognitive level

    • purpose is to help teachers increase and perform intellectual functions of teaching, thereby developing their capacities for self-modification

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  • Proposition 1

    • Current Evaluation and Staff Development Practices do Little to Improve Classroom Instruction.

  • Proposition 2

    • Separation of Summative and Formative Evaluation is Essential

  • Proposition 3

    • Staff must be viewed as Individuals

  • Proposition 4

    • Conferencing Strategies Should be Custom Tailored to the Individual

  • Proposition 5

    • Evaluation and Staff Development Must be Linked Together

  • Proposition 6

    • Development Must Result in Changes in Classroom Instruction - What students receive

  • Proposition 7

    • Development Must be Viewed as a Continuous Process for Everyone


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Proposition 1 Current Practice is Ineffective

  • Widely disregarded by teachers

  • Generally unattractive to administrators and often poorly executed

  • Not linked to anything in 99% of all cases

  • Almost never results in changes in classroom practice

  • Generally irritates parents


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Why Then Do We Bother with Teacher Assessment?

  • Changing Technology

    • More complex coordination is necessary

    • Know more about effective teaching

  • Teacher as the Central Figure

    • Key ingredient, performance is essential

    • Most important part of the program

  • Concern of Parents

    • Parents no longer know the child’s teacher

    • A move to state certification of teachers

    • Published reports that have been critical of schools

  • Administrative Feedback to Better Plan Programs

    • Placement

    • Dismissal

    • Validation of teacher selection process

    • Promotions and special identification

  • State Law or Board Policy


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Typical Efforts to Avoid Productive Evaluations

  • No-nonsense Game

    • principal fills out evaluation form

    • ceremonial classroom visit

    • observations are avoided

    • principal remains aloof at all times

    • principal derives power from being judge, jury, and defender of the teacher

    • teacher must act the dependent protected and subservient role--does not have to be self-critical

    • all comments must be completely positive and non-discriminating

  • Abdication Game

    • principals fear damaging relationships

    • role reversal is arranged where the teacher becomes the evaluator

    • reduces the responsibility load on the principal

    • maintains peaceful relations with the teachers

    • principal is forced into the position of accepting the teachers self-analysis


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Typical Efforts - continued

  • Lets Be Accountable Game

    • emphasis on ritualized procedures that appear to be systematic, scientific, and objective

    • priority is given to showing that the staff is doing a good job

    • lack of effort devoted to finding and solving problems

    • versions

      • elaborate instruments

      • narrative reporting

      • assignment of ratings

      • preparation of profiles

      • self/principal ratings

  • Turkey Trot and Dance of the Lemons


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The Real Reason That Evaluation is Useful

  • Teacher feedback needs

    • Improvement is impossible without systematic feedback

      • classroom isolation is a problem

      • lack of a concrete product causes uncertainty

      • lack of measures of success

  • Self-concept is dependent on ones view of his/her own efficacy--lack of such feedback often results in

    • lower levels of morale

    • greater feelings of anxiety

    • security focus--lack of risk taking

    • slower growth rates

    • distorted perceptions of reality


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Sound Practice

  • Judging as distinguished from knowing

    • knowledge must precede judging

    • global judgments are not useful

      • He’s a weak teacher

      • She is the best in the building

      • She is good at asking open ended questions

  • An act of evaluating as distinguished from a process of evaluation

    • a continuous process of related actions

    • improvement not bound to school calendar

  • The teacher as distinguished from teaching

    • focus should be on the teaching act not characteristics of the teacher

    • Formative and Summative Evaluation should be kept separate


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What Is

  • Supervision cannot rely on the existing work environment of schools to stimulate instructional improvement

  • Supervisors cannot assume that teachers are reflective, autonomous, and responsible for their own development

  • Supervisors will have to redefine their responsibilities--from controllers of teachers instruction to involvers of teachers in decisions about school instruction. (Carl Glickman, 1991)


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What Can Be

  • Supervision can strengthen teachers belief in a course beyond oneself

  • Supervision can promote teachers sense of efficacy

  • Supervision can make teachers aware of how they complement each other in striving for common goals

  • Supervision can stimulate teachers to appraise, reflect, and adapt their instruction.

  • Supervision can challenge teachers toward more varied, abstract thought.


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Proposition 2 Separation of Summative and Formative Evaluations is Essential

  • Summative evaluations are based on meeting basic expectations

    • Clearly stated and known

    • Basic not desirable

    • All employees need to met all minimums all the time

    • Evaluation can occur at any time

    • Used for administrative purposes

  • Formative evaluations are intended to produce growth

    • Basic characteristics

    • Face to face relationships between teacher and supervisor

    • A focus on the teachers actual behavior in the classroom

    • Not a remedy applied by the supervisor

    • Teacher centered supervision

    • Designed to help the teacher improve his or her instructional performance


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Formal Remediation


Baseline Data Collection

Goal Setting Conference

Removal From System

Data Collection Based on Goals

Feedback and Analysis

Summative Report Generation

Model for Separating Formative and Summative Evaluations

Job Descriptions

District Standards

Customary Procedures

Minimum Expectations


Does Not Meet Minimum Expectations

Meets Expectations

Summative Evaluation

Summative Evaluations

Summative Evaluation

Summative Evaluations

Does Not Meet Expectations

Improvement Strategy

Classical Clinical Supervision


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Assumptions of Clinical Supervision Model

  • To improve instruction, teachers must learn specific intellectual and behavioral skills

  • Supervisor should take responsibility for helping the teacher develop

    • analytical skills based on data

    • adaptation, experimentation, curriculum skills

  • Emphasis is on the instructional process, not teacher personality

  • Emphasis is on making and testing instructional hypotheses

  • Conferences deal with a few instructional issues that are important to the teacher and amenable to change

  • Based on observational evidence

  • Continuous cycle of planning. observing, and analysis


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Proposition 3 The Staff Must be Viewed as Individuals

  • Teachers operate at different levels of professional development.

    • differ in ability to analyze instruction

    • to use a repertoire of problem-solving strategies

    • and match strategies to particular situations

  • They need to be supervised in different ways (because of differing abilities, motivational levels, and effectiveness)

    • teachers at lower levels need more structure and direction

    • teachers at higher developmental levels need less structure and a more active role in decision-making

  • The long-range goal of supervision should be to increase every teachers ability to grow toward higher stages of thought.

    • more reflective, self-directed teachers will be better able to solve their own problems and meet the educational needs of their students

    • thoughtful teachers promote thoughtful students (Carl Glickman, 1991)


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Diagnosis of Teacher Developmental Level Case Studies

  • Group 1 Mary, Sam, Ann

  • Group 2 Carl, Ann, John

  • Group 3 Jane, John, Fred

  • Group 4 Mary, Jane, Sam

  • Group 5 Carl, Ann, Fred


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Student Knowledge

Content Knowledge

Analytical Ability

Instruction Knowledge








Diagnosis of Developmental Levels


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Proposition 4

  • Conferencing Strategies Should be Custom Tailored to the Individual


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Directive Conferences

  • Use When

    • Supervisor knows more about the content, students, pedagogy

    • When teacher motivational level is low

    • When analytical skills are lacking

  • Keys to look for

    • Difficulty in seeing relationships

    • Difficulty in understanding data

    • Wants rules

    • Relies on authority

    • Lack of concern

    • Stagnant

    • Limited use of instructional techniques


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Collaborative Conferences

  • When to use

    • When knowledge of students, instruction, and content is roughly equal

    • When motivation is good

    • When analytical ability is good

  • Keys

    • Teacher expresses interest in working together

    • Give-and-take relationship is productive

    • Teacher is comfortable with supervisor

    • There is an ability to build upon mutual suggestions


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Non-Directive Conference

  • Use when

    • Teachers knowledge, motivation, and analytical ability are high

    • Supervisor knows less than teacher

    • Teacher can be expected to self-improve

  • Keys

    • Can define strategies

    • Can draw relationships

    • Can generate novel alternatives

    • Can evaluate and select consequences of each alternative

    • Takes initiative to improve

    • Understands the subject area in relation to the scope and sequence

    • Knows subject area beyond existing guides


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Basic Skills of the Three Conference Protocols

  • Setting tone-adjusting anxiety level to facilitate learning

  • Setting Purpose-describing intended outcomes, duration, and success criteria

  • Initiating-beginning conference slowly

  • Listening-striving for complete understanding

  • Reflecting-verbalized understanding of initial statements

  • Clarifying-probing for underlying areas of potential growth

  • Encouraging-keeping the discussion going

  • Reflecting-understanding teachers message and identifying general areas of growth

  • Problem Solving-identification of growth areas and steps to be taken

  • Presenting-searching for understanding and commitment

  • Standardizing-establishing action plan

  • Evaluating-conference feedback for improvement


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Examples of Conference Protocols

  • Supervisor: Thanks for coming, lets review where we are going today

  • Supervisor to secretary: Mary, could you hold all calls while Jim and I try to establish some growth targets this year.

  • Supervisor: I hear you saying that .....

  • Supervisor: I’m following what you are saying, please continue

  • Supervisor: Please check my understand. I think you are saying that ......

  • Supervisor: What would be some alternative ways we could approach this issue?

  • Supervisor: OK, then we have agreed that the focus this year will be decreasing desist statements in your math classes. Ill code that behavior on a random basis and we will sit down ......

  • Supervisor: Jim, how do you think we might work more effectively in these goal setting conferences?


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Goal Setting Conferences Format

  • Conference Introduction

    • Purpose: To introduce the conference and prepare the participants to get the maximum benefit from the chosen format

  • Analysis

    • Purpose: To cause the teacher to engage in a self-analysis while the supervisor gathers information. To make sure the supervisor has an accurate perception of the teachers concerns

    • Goal Identification

    • Purpose: To facilitate goal identification and the underlying objectives that might be necessary to accomplish the overall goal

  • Future Planning

    • Purpose: To develop a concrete plan of action that specifies the who, what, when, how often, and measurement standards of the improvement effort.

    • Critique

    • Purpose: To obtain feedback about the nature and conduct of the conference to improve future developmental work with the teacher.


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Proposition 5

  • Evaluation and Staff Development Must be Linked Together


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Proposition 6

  • Development Must Result in Changes in Classroom Instruction


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  • Major Considerations

    • What purpose is to be served?

    • What data sources are needed and available?

    • What criteria are most relevant?

    • What procedures are most appropriate?

    • What instruments are most useful?


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Data Sources

  • Teacher self-reports

    • self-knowledge

    • active involvement

    • low cost

    • bias, subjectivity, conflict of interest

  • Observations

    • only selected activities

    • high cost

    • limited validity without multiple observations

    • only way to collect some kinds of data

    • face validity

  • Student Reports

    • students have extensive exposure

    • low cost

    • lack of acceptance

  • Peers

    • may lack observation skills

    • may be limited by contract

    • can be of high face validity

    • must be done in trusting environment


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Selected Data Collection Instruments

  • Selective Verbatim - a type of script tape

    • Focuses on verbal behavior of the teacher or students

    • Does not include all behaviors, only those selected for observation

    • An objective, non-interpretive record of behavior

    • Relatively simple to use

    • Sometimes important context is lost


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Uses of Selective Verbatim

  • Analysis of teacher or student questions

    • Cognitive level

    • Amount of information

    • Redirection to other students or answer given

    • Probing questions

    • Multiple questions

    • Feeling tone of question

    • Reasonableness of question given student ability

  • Analysis of teacher feedback

    • Amount

    • Variety

    • Specificity

  • Analysis of teacher directions and structuring statements

    • Amount

    • Type and variety

    • Time given in the lesson

    • Specificity


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Observational Records Based on Seating Patterns

  • At task observational systems - recording the extent to which individual students are engaged in various activities

  • Major considerations when using this system

    • getting the correct observational position

    • identifying the students to observe

    • creating a legend or coding key

    • deciding the time interval in which to observe the particular behavior

  • Uses

    • Identify which students are on or off task

    • Identify the extent to which ALT is present across differing groups of students

    • To profile the behaviors of differing groups of students

    • Identify the frequency and duration of various types of teacher behaviors

    • Identify the frequency and duration of classroom activity patterns such as small group work, class discussions, transitions, conceptual development of lesson, etc.


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  • Verbal Flow

    • Major considerations when using the system

      • getting in the correct observational position

      • identification of the target students

      • designing arrows or other markers that have specific meaning

        • directional

        • frequency

        • action taken

    • Uses

      • seating location preferences

      • student preferences

      • interaction patterns

      • categories of verbal interaction that occur in the classroom or among students and the teacher

      • verbal behavior preferences


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  • Movement Patterns

    • tracking of student or teacher activities

  • Flander’s Interaction Analysis

    • an examination of the teacher-student interaction patterns

    • an examination of teacher verbal behavior

  • Global Screen

    • a very broad look at teaching that can track a number of patterns such as teacher question levels and student responses


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Quality of Instruction




Determinants of Learning

Monitoring StudentProgress


Student Background and Experiences

Student Ability

Opportunity to Learn



Establishing ClassroomCulture and Management

Organizing andDeveloping Instruction


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Basic Ability Level of the Student

  • Student ability to

    • acquire basic knowledge

    • link basic knowledge into patterns or schema that represent concepts

    • link current knowledge to past learning - transfer

    • link knowledge about one subject to another - transfer

    • mentally manipulate abstract ideas

    • synthesis information

    • create new knowledge

  • Schools can not control the students entering cognitive ability levels but they can adjust the instructional and curricular program to capitalize on existing levels of ability.

  • Key questions for the Principal to ask:

    • Is the instructional and curricular programs appropriate for the current ability level of students?

      • Do students understand the lesson and can they describe the important concepts or facts?

      • Do students understand the relationships among the concepts or facts?

      • Do students understand the relationship between the developmental part of the lesson and the assignments?


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Past History and Experiences of the Student

  • Relates to the breadth and depth of students prior history and experiences

  • Students bring some of this information with them but also acquire a substantial amount from prior schooling experiences.

  • Key questions for the principal

    • Are essential experiences present?

    • Does the teacher employ diagnostic techniques that enables them to use:

      • prior student experiences?

      • prior student knowledge?

      • transfer principles?

    • How does the current lesson link to past school experiences?

    • How does the current lesson directly link to the previous lesson?

    • How does the current lesson link to lessons in other subject areas?

    • How does the current lesson build on or utilize student background knowledge?


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  • Dependent on five concepts or factors

    • Time allocated - the amount of teacher instructional time established for that particular subject

    • Time provided - the amount of time the teacher actually devotes to teaching of that particular subject

    • Time experienced - the amount of time a student is actually is engaged in learning

    • Academic learning time - the amount of time a student is engaged working on teacher directed tasks at a 80% success rate

    • Review - the extent to which a student is given the opportunity for additional ALT

  • Key questions for the principal

    • What is the engagement rate for the class as a whole?

    • What is the engagement rate for students throughout the class period?

    • What is the engagement rate for different groups of students (minority, majority, high ability, low ability, transfer students, etc.)?

    • Are all students at the ALT level?


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  • What the student experiences is the key question.

  • Key Questions for the principal

    • What is the appropriateness of the lesson given the:

      • students developmental level?

      • students readiness?

      • continuity from previously learned contents or processes?

    • How much emphasis is placed on important concepts and principles?

      • is their an overemphasis on facts and recall?

      • do the facts help illustrate the concepts?

      • does the teacher relate the concepts to prior learning and student experiences?

    • What is the clarity level of the presentations from a student perspective?

      • are they organized from the perspective of the student?

      • is the vocabulary appropriate to the students level of understanding?

      • can the students anticipate the next steps in the lesson?

    • Are concepts and principals presented with critical attributes, non-critical attributes, and non-exemplars?


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  • The first step in organizing instruction

  • Is a thinking process

  • Need to engage in the planning process varies with experience and analytical ability

  • Strong relationship between planning and subsequent classroom behavior

  • A possible planning sequence

    • Identify content to be covered

      • decisions about what to teach

      • determination of student readiness

      • identification of time constraints

    • Identify instructional materials to be used

      • selection of materials

      • preparation of materials

      • management of materials

    • Identify instructional activities to employ

      • selection of activities

      • sequence of activities

      • organization and management of activities

    • Selection of evaluation procedures


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  • Content

    • What do you plan to teach?

    • What should students be able to do at the end?

    • What factors are to be considered in selecting the content?

    • How do you determine that students are ready?

    • How is the content related to previous or future lessons?

    • What elements will be emphasized?

  • Materials

    • What materials and why were they selected?

    • What preparation of materials is required?

    • What plans are needed for managing materials during instruction?

  • Activities

    • What activities did you select and for what purposes?

    • How will you conduct these activities?

    • What sequence of these activities will you employ?

    • How will the class be organized and why?

  • Evaluation

    • How will you determined that the intended learning has taken place?

    • How will you assess the extent to which the materials were useful?

    • How will you determine if other methods of instruction might have been more successful?


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Specific Concepts in Planning

  • Content Coverage

    • Teacher decisions about the subject matter that is to be taught during a given segment of instruction

      • identification/selection of content

      • analysis of content - separation into distinct elements (concepts, exemplars, skills, etc.)

      • evaluation of content - judges appropriateness of content

      • sequencing of content - what order to present

      • pacing of content - amount to be taught in time interval

  • Utilization of Instructing Materials

    • Teacher identification, selection, review, analysis, evaluation, or management of materials to be used in instruction

      • identification/selection of materials - specification of material to be used

      • analysis of instructional materials - what segments or parts to be used for what reason

      • evaluation of instructional materials - judges the appropriateness of material

      • management of instructional material - preparation and management of materials


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  • Activity Structure

    • Teacher specifies what she and the students are to do during a segment of instruction

      • identification/selection of instructional activity

      • sequencing of instructional activity - order or pattern of activity

      • analysis of instructional activity - breaks activity into component parts

      • pacing of instructional activity - time for each segment

      • evaluation of instructional activity - appropriateness of activity (learner, content, format, time)

      • specification of activity format - appropriateness for class organization

  • Goal Focus

    • Teacher consideration of general aim or expected outcome of instruction

      • identification of expected learner outcome

      • evaluation of goal/instruction congruence

      • justification of goals - reason for selection

  • Diagnosis

    • Teacher statements that focus on student ability or achievement, background, preparation, or needs in the course of planning a segment of instruction

    • Identification of learner states

      • Matches learner needs with instructional elements

      • Evaluation


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Management of Student Conduct and Culture

  • Rule explication and monitoring

  • Withitness

  • Overlapping Withitness

  • Quality of desist

  • Group signals

  • Movement characteristics

  • Praise

  • Learning environment


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Organization and Development of Instruction

  • Efficient use of time

  • Review of subject matter

  • Lesson development

  • Teacher treatment of students talk

  • Teacher academic feedback

  • Management of seatwork and homework


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Delivery of Instruction

  • Presentation of interpretative knowledge

  • Presentation of Explanatory knowledge

  • Presentation of Academic rules

  • Presentation of value knowledge

  • Control of discourse

  • Emphasis marking

  • Task attraction and challenge

  • Teacher speech

  • Teacher body language


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Monitoring Student Progress

  • Assessment preparation

  • Assessment administration

  • Formative feedback


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Models of Teaching Everyone

  • Different ways of linking together various teacher instructional behaviors to achieve different goals through different processes

  • No particular model of teaching is preferable in all situations

  • Each model has particular strengths and weaknesses


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Implementing Developmental Supervision Everyone

  • Do I want to work in this district?

  • Understand the rules and procedures of your district

  • Three considerations

    • Yourself

      • Do I have the necessary skills?

      • Am I willing to commit to the task?

      • Will I thrive on the feedback I will get?

      • Am I willing to learn with the staff?

    • Your staff

      • How receptive will they be?

      • What is there current level?

    • The culture

      • How will your fellow principals view you?

      • What support will you receive from district staff?

      • What impact will a change in practice have in your situation?


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Implementation continued Everyone

  • Process

    • Start slowly maybe with volunteers

    • Explain the process to the staff before starting

    • Get initial success before expanding

    • Include others serving as coaches

    • Successive approximation

  • Celebrate, Recognize, Reinforce, and Reward Success

    • Place high value on the process

    • Include yourself and be visible to others

  • Link with others