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Data Protection: Your Duties as a Data Controller PowerPoint Presentation
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Data Protection: Your Duties as a Data Controller

Data Protection: Your Duties as a Data Controller

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Data Protection: Your Duties as a Data Controller

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  1. Data Protection: Your Duties as a Data Controller

  2. Fair obtaining & processing Consent Specified purpose No disclosure unless “compatible” Safe and secure Accurate, up-to-date Relevant, not excessive Retention period Right of access The Data Protection Rules

  3. Data Protection Acts, 1988 & 2003 Background The Acts create:

  4. Rights and Obligations • Rights of “data subject” (= identifiable, living individual) to control the use of their “personal data” • Obligations on “data controllers” (“a person who controls the contents and use of personal data”) and “data processors” (“A person who processes personal data on behalf of a data controller”)

  5. Definitions(1) • Personal Data • Any Data relating to a livingidentifiable individual • Data • Automated data or structured manual data • Manual Data • Structured by reference to individuals in a way that makes data readily accessible

  6. Definitions(2) • Data Controller • a person who controls the contents and use of personal data • Data Processor • A person who processes personal data on behalf of a data controller

  7. Definitions(3) • Data Subject • an individual who is the subject of personal data • Processing • Anything done with personal data, from collection to disposal

  8. Sensitive Data (special protection) • Physical or mental health • Racial origin • Political opinions • Religious or other beliefs • Sexual life • Criminal convictions • Alleged commission of offence • Trade Union membership

  9. Rights of Individuals • to fairness when giving information • to get a copy of their personal information – includes both computer and certain manual files • to have wrong information corrected • to opt out of marketing - includes mail & phone • to complain to the Data Commissioner

  10. Obtain & Process Fairly I Rule 1 • Data controller must give full information about • identity • purposes • disclosees • any other data necessary for “fairness” • Third party data controllers • must contact data subject to provide these details • must give name of original data controller

  11. Obtain & Process Fairly II Rule 1 One of these conditions required: • Consent • Legal obligation • Contract with individual • Necessary to protect vital interests • Necessary for a public function (Justice) • necessary for ‘legitimate interests’

  12. Processing Sensitive Data Rule 1 One of these additional conditions is required • Explicit consent • Necessary under employment law • To prevent injury or protect vital interests • Process the data of members/clients of non-profit orgs. • Legal advice • For Medical Purposes • Statutory function

  13. Fair obtaining - practical • Do people know you process their data? • did you get data directly from them? • Do they know all data types you process? • Do they know why you process their data? • administering training/exams; providing newsletters…

  14. Rule 2 Specified Purpose • Part of obligations when obtaining to specify purpose • Cannot expand purpose without reverting to individual

  15. General rule – no disclosure for different purpose Exceptions made, to balance other interests of society Section 8 exceptions Investigation of crime Collection of taxes Security of the State Protect life & limb Law or court order Legal advice and legal proceedings No general “public interest” test Rule 3 Disclose only if compatible

  16. Disclosure Policy • The Data Controller should have a policy in place to determine how requests for data from third parties are handled. • This policy should be consulted by appropriate staff members

  17. Disclosure - practical • Use of bcc rather than cc fields on e-mails might be preferable. • Informing an employer about an employee’s training results might be a disclosure where the employee had personally arranged and paid for course.

  18. Keep Safe and Secure Rule 4 • Appropriate security measures • Appropriate to the harm that might result.. • Appropriate to the nature of the data • May have regard to cost of implementation • May have regard to the current state of technology • Staff must know and comply with measures • Internal review of security measures-part of Internal Audit function ?

  19. Security - practical • Care must also be taken regarding paper records, especially sensitive or financial data. • Ideally data not left in a way that non-relevant staff can access files. • Attention paid to how visitors move around an office.

  20. Data Protection Training. • Obligation on employer to ensure staff are aware of data protection obligations. • Training • Policy. • A Code of Practice. • Person in charge

  21. Accurate, Complete and Up-to-Date Rule 5 • Longer personal data is held, more likely it will be inaccurate and out-of-date • Right to have errors rectified (see later)

  22. Relevant and not Excessive Rule 6 • No right to ask for, or hold, information not relevant to service etc being provided • Challenge: who do you need all this personal data ?

  23. Retain no longer than necessary Rule 7 • Legal obligations to hold data? • Customer files • Do you need to hold all that data? • Payment records might have one retention period • Exam results might have longer retention period • Credit card details retained with consent • Must have policy thought through • Defend retention as necessary for purpose.

  24. Right of Access: Empowerment Rule 8 The Right of Access empowers individuals by enabling them to supervise the processing of their personal data.

  25. Scope of Access Request • Applies to all manual and electronic records in existence at the time of receipt of an access request – regardless of when the record was created. • Copy of information must be provided in permanent form unless data subject agrees otherwise or this is impossible or involves disproportionate effort

  26. What must be disclosed in an access request • Personal data held • purposes for processing data • persons to whom data are disclosed • the source of the data • subject to confidentiality safeguards • logic involved in automated decisions

  27. Access Request - Procedure • Shall be in writing • Data Subject shall provide sufficient information to identify oneself • Data Controller shall comply within 40 days • May charge a fee up to €6.35

  28. Opinions • Exempt from an access request only if the expression of an opinion was given in confidence or under the understanding it would be treated as confidential. • References are not exempt in general • High threshold required • Work performance reports on colleagues are accessible • Interview notes-accessible

  29. Exempt from Access Requests • Data relating to a claim of liability • Data covered by legal privilege • Data relating to a criminal investigation • Certain research data • Back-up data

  30. Access: Exemptions (S.5) • Right of Access does not apply if likely to prejudice: • Preventing, detecting or investigating offences, apprehending or prosecuting offenders • Security in a place of detention • Other (international relations, privileged information etc)

  31. Restricted Right of Access Right does not apply where it would impair – • the investigation of a crime, or assessment / collection of tax • Subject to case-by-case “prejudice” test • International relations of the State • Legal professional privilege • Medical and social work data – special rules • Statistical or research • Back up data

  32. Other Access Exemptions Financial, Anti-fraud investigators • National Consumer Agency • Examiners, Receivers, Liquidators, Court inspectors • Recognised accountants, auditors • Company law inspections • Central Bank/Financial Regulator

  33. Right to correct/erase/block • Section 6 of the Act • Data Subject makes a written request • Personal data must be: • Corrected, if inaccurate; or • Deleted, if should not be held. • Data Controller has 40 days to respond • No fee

  34. Correction or deletion Personal data must be: • Corrected, if inaccurate; or • Deleted, if should not be held. • Note difference of opinion • Inform those who got wrong or inaccurate data

  35. Right of erasure • Doesn’t apply if you have a lawful purpose in retaining data • Such as auditing or accreditation purposes

  36. Automated decisions • Key decisions cannot be made solely based on automated processing of personal data • creditworthiness • work performance • reliability • Exceptions • consent; legal necessity; contractual reasons

  37. Right to object Section 6A(1) allows the data subject to object to the processing of data • Is “likely to cause substantial damage or distress to him or her, or to another person, and • The damage or distress is or would be unwarranted”

  38. DP/FOI Access to Personal Information • DP and FOI Acts reinforce one another in relation to personal access in the public sector • Defending access to personal information as human (DP) and citizen (FOI) right • 3rd Party Access restricted under both Acts • FOI access to personal information should sometimes prevail in the public interest

  39. Right to opt out of direct marketing • Section 2(7) of the Act • Data subject may opt out of direct marketing database (e.g. a mailing list) • Data controller must delete the data subject’s details (or stop using them for direct marketing) • Data controller must reply within 40 days

  40. What is Direct Marketing? • "Direct marketing is a series of marketing strategies, using various delivery techniques designed to provide the receiver (consumers and companies) with information at a distance... (using) different means of approach e.g. broadcasting, printed press, mail, telephone, on-line-services). It is used to sell products, to deliver information, public announcements, and for sales after-service, customer care services, charity and political appeals". (FEDMA)

  41. Electronic Communications • Right to “opt-out” of all unsolicited direct marketing calls • Ex-Directory customers (and most mobiles) automatically ‘opted-out’ • If not ex-directory, Contact your phone line provider and ask to be put on the National Directory Database ‘opt-out’ list • SMS and e-mail unsolicited marketing banned

  42. Using Sensitive Data EXTRA conditions: S.2B (one only is needed) • explicit consent • necessary under employment law • non-profit body (political, philosophical, religious, trade-union) – its members / clients • necessary for medical purposes (contd)

  43. Using Sensitive Data EXTRA conditions: (one only is needed) • necessary to protect vital interests • necessary for legal advice / legal claim • for electoral purposes • for substantial public interest • as prescribed by Minister

  44. Data Processors • Agents and sub-contractors • There must be a written contract in place • Data Controller must take reasonable steps to ensure compliance with security measures

  45. Responsibilities on Data Controllers at the different stages Beginning Getting the Data Middle While you have the data End Disposing of data

  46. Keep accurate Have a retention policy Inform and get consent Justification to process Beginning Getting the Data Middle While you have the data End Disposing of data Specify purpose Disclose only if compatible or allowable exception Keep secure and dispose securely Respond to access requests Only gather what is required

  47. Keep accurate Have a retention policy Inform and get consent Justification to process Beginning Getting the Data Middle While you have the data End Disposing of data Specify purpose Disclose only if compatible or allowable exception Keep secure and dispose securely Respond to access requests Only gather what is required

  48. Keep accurate Have a retention policy Inform and get consent Justification to process Beginning Getting the Data Middle While you have the data End Disposing of data Specify purpose Disclose only if compatible or allowable exception Keep secure and dispose securely Respond to access requests Only gather what is required

  49. Electronic Communications • General DP Principles apply • Telecom-specific: • ‘Cookies’ on PCs • Caller ID (phones) • Location Data (mobiles) • Directories • ‘SPAM’ • Data Retention • ‘Cold Calling’ opt-out

  50. Good Practice (1) • Explain the basic principles to staff • Document procedures • Allocate responsibility for compliance and what sanctions may arise if not enforced • Adhere to the ‘need to know principle’ • Audit checks and reviews