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Chapter 8 – Machine Instructions. These are lecture notes to accompany the book SPARC Architecture, Assembly Language Programming, and C , by Richard P. Paul, 2 nd edition, 2000. By Michael Weeks & Abinashi Dhungel. Decoding Instructions. SPARC Instructions are 32 bits long

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Chapter 8 machine instructions

Chapter 8 – Machine Instructions

These are lecture notes to accompany the book SPARC Architecture, Assembly Language Programming, and C,

by Richard P. Paul, 2nd edition, 2000.

By Michael Weeks &Abinashi Dhungel

Richard P. Paul, SPARC Architecture, Assembly Language Programming, and C


Decoding instructions
Decoding Instructions

  • SPARC Instructions are 32 bits long

  • Bits <31:30> specify the “op” field

  • These first 2 bits indicate how the other bits should be handled.

op

31 30 29 0

Richard P. Paul, SPARC Architecture, Assembly Language Programming, and C


Decoding instructions1
Decoding Instructions

  • Instructions are classified according to “op”

op

31 30 29 0

op Instruction class

00 Branch instructions

01 Call instructions

10 Format Three instructions

11 Format Three instructions

Richard P. Paul, SPARC Architecture, Assembly Language Programming, and C


Format 1 instructions
Format 1 Instructions

  • Call instruction

  • The displacement must be word aligned

  • Address is calculated by right shifting displacement 2 positions

01

30 bit displacement

31 30 29 0

Richard P. Paul, SPARC Architecture, Assembly Language Programming, and C


Format 2 instructions
Format 2 Instructions

  • branch

0 0 a cond op2 22 bit immediate

31 30 29 28 25 24 22 21 0

  • sethi

0 0 rd 1 0 0 22 bit immediate

31 30 29 25 24 22 21 0

Richard P. Paul, SPARC Architecture, Assembly Language Programming, and C


Branch instructions
Branch Instructions

  • The branch is (or is not) taken based on the “cond” (condition) field.

  • op2 = 010 means integer condition code

cond branch type

0000 never

0001 if equal to zero

0010 if less than or equal to zero

0011 if less than zero

0100 if less or equal, unsigned

0101 if carry set

0110 if negative

0111 if overflow is set

cond branch type

1000 always

1001 if not equal to zero

1010 if greater than zero

1011 if greater than or equal to zero

1100 if greater, unsigned

1101 if carry is clear

1110 if positive

1111 if overflow is clear

Richard P. Paul, SPARC Architecture, Assembly Language Programming, and C


Format 3 instructions
Format 3 Instructions

  • 2 source registers

  • Immediate constant

op = 10

op3 Instruction000000 add000001 and000010 or000011 xor000100 sub000101 andn000110 orn000111 xnor001000 addx111100 save111101 restore111110 <unused>111111 <unused>

op = 11

op3 Instruction000000 ld000001 ldub000010 lduh000011 ldd000100 st000101 stb000110 sth000111 std001000 <unused>

See page 235 and 236for a complete list of the instructions

Richard P. Paul, SPARC Architecture, Assembly Language Programming, and C


Classwork
Classwork

  • Decode the following commands:

  • 0x9de3bfa0

  • 0xd007bfec

  • 0x92102004

  • 0x90020009

  • 0xd027bfec

save %sp, -96, %sp

ld [%fp-20], %o0

Richard P. Paul, SPARC Architecture, Assembly Language Programming, and C


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