Europe Section 1 - Geography
Europe is 3,837,000 Sq. Miles - 6.7% of Earths surface North America is 9,365,000 Sq. Miles Texas is 268,580 sq mi
Physical Characteristics North – Middle – South - • Scandinavian Peninsula and Kjolen Mountains (Norway, Sweden, Finland) • European Plains extend throughout the center of WE • More extremely high mountains • Alps in South France & Northern Italy • Pyrenees between France and Spain • Apennines in Italy • Balkans of Greece and Albania
Physical Characteristics • small – only 3% of Earth’s landmass • contains a diverse landscape with a variety of physical features
Physical Characteristics River systems Most important • Many European cities are located on the banks of rivers • They crisscross their way through the cont. carrying much of the regions commerce • Rhine and the Danube
Climates 2 Major Climates • 1. Marine West Coast • Creating this climate so far north of the equator are… • the Prevailing Westerlies • Gulf Stream • 2. Mediterranean • Warm summers with cool winters
Ecosystems • Like in other industrialized nations in the world, much of the original forests have been cleared for farming and pastures • Large animals like the bison have lost their habitats • Most can only be found today in preserves or zoos • Despite the destruction, there is still a variety of wildlife that exists in WE ecosystems
People and Cultures • One of the most densely populated regions in the world • unevenly distributed • Germany and the Netherlands in comparison to the Nordic Nations
Languages of Europe WHY IS IT SO DIVERES? The most salient reason -the fact that Europe has been colonized and invaded many times over the past 15,000 years - by many different ethnicities coming mostly from Asia, the Caucusus (mountains) and the Russian Ukraine. - Anthropologists believe that fair skin and blue eyes common among many northern Europeans originated in the Ukraine about 10,000 years ago.
Europe Section 2 – The history of the people
Timeline of Europe 5400 B.C. • Farming spread from SW Asia into Western Europe (cultural diffusion) • Writing developed in Afr. (Egypt) and Middle East and spread to Greece • From Greece came powerful civilizations that spread to Italy, Spain, and France
Before Dark AgesGreece Why Greece Becomes Europe's Most Sophisticated Civilization • Could have migrated from Asia down through Europe or seafaring people who settled along the coast of Greek Isles • Due to proximity to advanced civilizations to the east. • Geography & fertile lands around Med. Sea's eastern shores brought large & diverse cultures into contact with one another interacting through • trade • learning from one another • pushing each other toward greater progression.
Greek Philosophers Socrates(c. 469-399 B.C.) Plato(c. 427-347 B.C.) Aristotle(384-322 B.C.)
Before Dark AgesRome • Migrated from the basin of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers • Romans - inhabitants of a small town in Italy, • conquered first the entire western basin and then the eastern basin of the Mediterranean Sea • Then began to conquer land north into Europe and south into Africa Where they came from
Rome – Considered heart of the Ancient world and remains a model for Western Civilization • Lead in… • Architecture • Road building • Infrastructure • Engineering • Military • Uniform currency • Government • Greece – Had many different cultures • Sparta • Athens • Other City-states make up the Balkan Penn. • Lead in… • Politics – 1st democratic gov’ts • Philosophy • Art • Architecture
Time Line continued: DARK AGES – By 500 A.D. • Fall of Roman Empire created a time characterized by poverty, disease, political conflict, and warfare • Several hundred years of no learning or education • Roman Catholic Church comes into power as a result of lack state rulers/leaders (kings)
Dark Ages • early medieval period of western European history. • Refers to the time (476–1000) • no Roman (or Holy Roman) emperor in the West • No kings or countries in control • marked by frequent warfare and a virtual disappearance of urban life • Video period of intellectual darkness economic regression that occurred in Europe following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
Timeline continued MIDDLE AGES 1066 -1500s Powerful new states developed England, Spain, France, Portugal and the Netherlands
1066 – Battle of Hastings • William Duke of Normandy - Major lord in France • Claimed right to English Throne • King Harold II of England – Said nope its mine • William invades England through the English Channel fights and kills King Harold (Shot in eye by arrow) • Becomes the new king of England • New era begins (Middle Ages) • French and English languages combined creating “Middle English” (Shakespeare)
Feudalism set of legal and military customs flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries structured society - the holding of land in exchange for service or labour.
The Crusades 1096 - 1272 9 Crusades over the time period series of Holy Wars launched by the Christian states of Europe against the Saracens (Muslims) great military expeditions undertaken for the purpose of rescuing the holy places of Palestine & Jerusalem from the Muslims
Timeline continued Renaissance, 1400’s – 1600s meaning “rebirth” • Rebirth and Expansion • Western Europe rediscovered knowledge of Ancient Greece and Romans • This lead to increase in science and technology http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UsKSB-aT3ys
Renaissance – Began in Italy http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AsrRqsSM97U Age of new discoveries, both geographical (exploration of the New World) and intellectual. Copernicus (1473-1543) attempted to prove that the sun rather than the earth was at the center of the planetary system, thus radically altering the view that had dominated antiquity and the Middle Ages. Martin Luther (1483-1546) challenged and ultimately caused the division of one of the major institutions that had united Europe throughout the Dark & Middle Ages--the Catholic Church.
The Protestant Reformation movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Such as… Religious aspects were being supplemented by ambitious political rulers who wanted to extend their power Priests were pretty much the only educated people and had become VERY corrupt (Some nobles were educated) The Church had complete control of every person’s life – From kings down to peasants Martin Luther (1483-1546) German Augustinian monk, posted 95 theses on a church door in the university town of Wittenberg Luther - condemned the excesses and corruption of the Roman Catholic Church, for asking payment called "indulgences"—for the forgiveness of sins.
The Protestant Reformation • Key results – • Growth of new churches • PROTESTANT CHURCHES • Moved away from Catholic traditions and formed “new types of faiths” • Challenged Church’s right to control its people • People started reading the written word for themselves instead of being told what the word said. Political and national convictions began to outweighed religious convictions again.
King Henry VIII & Protestant Reformation • King Henry VIII (1509-1547) of England was married to Queen Catherine of Aragon • Wanted a divorce so he could marry Anne Boleyn • Catholic church did(does) not allow divorce, so… • Henry broke away from the Church (creating Church of England – Protestant) so he could divorce Catherine • Changes history of religion around the world
Renaissance Artist Leonardo da Vinci Michelangelo
Movable Type The world's first known movable-type system for printing was created in China around 1040 A.D • Around 1450, Johannes Gutenberg • invented the printing press and independently developed a movable type system in Europe • - Began mass producing writings • - Spread information quicker and faster
Timeline Continued http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Efq-aNBkvc 1700’s Industrialization and Democracy • Technology became much more advanced • Development of machines for product production and for power (water, steam, fuel) • Industrial revolution began in England and spread to the rest of Western Europe by 1800’s
Cotton Gin (1793) • Eli Whitney - inventor of the cotton gin and a pioneer in the mass production of cotton. • Automated the separation of cottonseed from the short-staple cotton fiber • revolutionized the cotton industry in the United States. • Prior to his invention, farming cotton required hundreds of man-hours to separate the cottonseed from the raw cotton fibers.
Timeline Continued 1900 to present Conflict and Cooperation Periods of intense conflict with Asia and Eastern Europe Formation of European Union to help with trade
1900 to present Conflict and Cooperation • WWI – 1914-1918 • Great War • Balkans was Europe's main trouble area – still is • Serbia, Bulgaria, Greece and Montenegro attacked Turkey (1912) • Bulgaria was defeated by Romania, Serbia and Greece • 1914 - • the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne by a Serbian – officially started WWI • Break down in communication b/t empires of Europe • To many treaties allying one empire with each other while disintegrating former treaties • Post WWI – Empires break down into smaller countries
1900 to present Conflict and Cooperation http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QD-Hn8foQwo http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KqBoxpE0HwY - History of… Russian Revolution • 1914, Russia declared war on Austria and Germany. • Russian Tsar Nicholas II stepped down due to war and famine • Provisional Gov’t set up • The Bolsheviks tried to overthrow the government, winning popular support with their demand for "peace, land and bread". • Bolshevik revolutionaries ousted the provisional government and seized power – completing Russia’s second revolution in nine months • Vladimir Lenin - Takes over – Formation of USSR
1900 to present Conflict and Cooperation WWII – 1939-1945 • Germany extremely poor after WWI • Goes on the aggressive side to bring back “the glory of Germany” • Hitler uses “Language families” to invade several area and countries • France and England – use policy of “appeasement” at 1st • Just letting him have what he wanted to avoid war • After invading 4-5 countries in Europe in 1930s France & England declare war and WWII begins
1900 to present Conflict and Cooperation Cold War 1946-1991 Korean War 1950-1953 • time of tension and hostility between the USA and the USSR after 1945. • No actual war was fought, it was more of a psychological war • Post WWII - Korea was split into two areas: • the Soviet-occupied North and US-occupied South.
USSR and “The Eastern Block” Eastern Block – Eastern European countries under Soviet control The Cold War increased the number of reasons for the division of Europe into two parts along the borders of NATO and Warsaw Pact states. Post WWII – Eastern Europe came under Soviet control Communists gov’tsput in place by Soviets Eastern Europe states - are historically and culturally different from Western Eur. For the next 35-40 years all people are forced to practice NO religion (Atheism and Orthodoxy – very prominent today due to this policy)
Iron Curtain, the political, military, and ideological barrier erected by the Soviet Union after World War II to seal off itself and its dependent eastern and central European allies from open contact with the West and other noncommunist areas.
Eastern European Revolutions • the revolutions which overthrew the communist states in various Central and Eastern European countries. • The events began in Poland in 1989,and continued in Hungary, East Germany, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia and Romania. • One feature common to most of these developments was the extensive use of campaigns of civil resistancedemonstrating popular opposition to the continuation of one-party rule and contributing to the pressure for change
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=snsdDb7KDkg – fall of Berlin wall http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N83F96b23w8 – revolutions