Assessment: Whom, Why, and Knowing the Child Presentation by: Colleen McNamara KIN 582 Spring, 2013
You Tube Link • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hrlKwK1NHRA
Overview Whom you are Assessing Why you are Assessing Getting to Know the Child
Whom You Are Assessing • AAPAR Position Statement on APE (2010) • IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Act (1975) • ADA: Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) • Zero Exclusion and Zero Failure • Key Attributes of Whom you Assess
Why You Are Assessing • Norm and Criterion Referenced Instruments • Major Assessment Based Decisions • Role and Function of Continuous Assessment • Success and Failure through Assessment
Getting to Know the Child • General Role of Assessment in an IEP • Medical and Psychological Parameters • Medical and Safety Considerations • Learning Modalities and Assessment
Who Qualifies for APE Services? • AAPHERD/AAPAR: Position Statement (2010) • IDEA: Individuals with Disabilities Act (1975) • ADA: Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
“Any student who has unique needs for instruction in physical education, regardless of disability, is entitled to receive appropriate accommodations through adapted physical education. Therefore, the term eligibility is used in this statement in the broadest sense.” *NASPE AND AAPAR AAPAR Position Statement APE Quailfications.pdf
IDEA and ADA • Landmark Law: Free appropriate education all special needs children 3-21. • Determined eligibility for special education services. • 14 conditions legally recognized as disabilities under the law. • Most appropriate, least restrictive. • Physical Education direct service. • IEP • Replaced the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. • Prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability by agencies of the federal government. • Section 504: no exclusion from any programs receiving federal assistance (including schools). • All sites Accessible • 504 Plans Individuals with Disabilities Act (1975) Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
Individuals with Disabilities Act(IDEA) • Public Law 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) is the first law in the history of the U.S. provided children with disabilities the right to a free, appropriate education. • Individual Education Program (IEP).
To qualify for special education services, the student must have both a qualifying condition and demonstration that this condition affects their educational performance, even with accommodations. IDEA: Assessment will determine if their disability affects their education performance.
Qualification for Special Education Services • Assessment in special education begins by determining whether a child qualifies for special education services. • Does the student qualify under the law? • Does the student’s disability significantly affect their educational performance?
Autism • Deaf/Blindness • Deafness • Developmental Delay • Emotional Disturbance • Hearing Impairment • Intellectual Disability • Multiple Disability • Orthopedic Impairment • Other Health Impairment • Specific Learning Disability • Speech and Language Impairment • Traumatic Brain Injury • Visual Impairment including Blindness Qualifying Conditions IDEA IDEA 14 Categories.pdf
Students qualified for special education services under IDEA can qualify for APE services. • If a child does not qualify for special education services, then he or she will not qualify for APE services.* • A child who qualifies for special education services does not automatically qualify for APE services. IDEA and APE It must determined through testing weather or not a child’s disability significantly affects his or her ability to be successful in physical education.
Adapted PE is a service, not a place. • APE is an individualized program including physical and motor fitness, fundamental movement skills and patterns, skills in aquatics and dance and individual and group games and sports designed to meet the unique needs of individuals. • Designed to meet long term unique needs. APE and IDEA Physical Education is a direct service.
Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) • “No otherwise qualified handicapped individual in the U.S…shall, soley by reason of his or her handicap be excluded from the participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any program receiving Federal financial assistance.” • Public schools receive federal funding and thus are subject to the rules and regulations of ADA. • This is where 504’s come from.
ADA • Some students with disabilities do not qualify for special education services under IDEA because they do not have a disability that qualifies under one of the 14 categories or their disability does not adversely affect educational performance. • The definition of disability in the ADA is much broader than in IDEA.
504 Plan Summary • Therefore, section 504 plans usually include accessibility issues (getting around the building, a wheel chair ramp) as well as classroom modifications and accommodations. • Students are also entitled to adapted equipment, different testing procedures, extra time to complete tasks, and any other changes that “level the playing field.” • This is a regular education initiative and does not have special education funding provided to supplement the service.
“Benefit from Education” • A qualifying child with a disability must receive an individually administered program that leads to clear educational benefit. • AKA: Measureable goals. • Under section 504, a qualifying child should receive an education that is comparable to the education provided to children without disabilities. • AKA: accomodations and supports. IDEA ADA
IDEA vs. ADA • IDEA eligibility requires a child to have a disability that adversely affects educational performance. • ADA requires a child’s disability to affect major life activities. IDEA ADA
In Summary:Who Qualifies for APE? • NASPE/AAPAR: anyone who needs an accommodation or modification. • IDEA: someone who has one of the qualifying conditions and this condition adversely affects performance. • ADA: someone who needs the supports to receive a comparable education: accessibility, classroom modifications, and accommodations.
Dimensions Affecting Assessment • The following dimensions can influence assessment and subsequently program planning: • Physical and Motor • Perceptual • Learning and Cognitive • Behavioral and Social
Zero Exclusion and Zero Failure • Services must be provided to all children with a disability regardless of severity of disability. • Set the student up for success! • This can only be achieved by determining through assessment each child’s abilities and strengths, concerns and needs. Zero Exclusion Zero Failure
Why Are We Assessing? Why are we assessing? What’s the difference between Norm Reference Instruments (NRIs) and Criterion Referenced Instruments (CRIs)? What assessment based decisions do teachers need to make in APE? What is the role and function of continuous assessment in PE? How does assessment control the success or failure of students?
Norm Referenced Assessments(NRI) • NRI’s allow comparison of one student’s performance against the performance of others from a particular peer group with similar characteristics. • For example: a 10 year old girl’s score will be compared to another 10 year old girl’s score. • More examples include percentiles, chronological age norms. Usually associated with standardized tests.
Criterion Referenced Assessments(CRI) • Less Standardized • Involve evaluating performance against an established set of criteria. • Example: Fitnessgram
Assessment Based Decisions Identification Decisions Placement Decisions Instructional Decisions
Identification • Does the student qualify for APE services? • When the PE teacher is asked to participate in these eligibility decisions, they must be able to select and administer appropriate assessments that meet these requirements.
Identification process is federally regulated. • NRIs are typically used when making identification decisions. They can provide normative data that can show the magnitude of the differences found in a student’s performance compared with standards. Identification Decisions Is the student eligible to receive special education services?
Placement • Needs identified and program defined to address those needs. • The annual goals and short term objectives make up the IEP. • Where this program will be implemented. • Collect and compare assessment information on content to be taught for the student being considered and for the students in the target placement setting. First Decision Second Decision
Determine the most appropriate, least restrictive environment where the physical education goals in their IEP’s can be addressed and achieved. Placement Decisions Most appropriate, least restrictive.
Instructional Decisions • Assessment drives instruction. • Collect data that can be used to make informed instructional decisions. • Make assessment an ongoing part of the instructional process.
Decisions Summary • Identification • Placement • Instruction
Know the Child What to know about the child before assessing them.
Central Files Health Related Records (Medical) Psychological Workups School Files Agency Files Insights from Parents and Guardians Insights from other school personnel Insights from the child Background Information • Purpose of this section is to examine the types of background information gathered before the assessment process and identify the roles in the assessment process
Rationale • Knowing where a child has come from almost always provides insights into present day performance. These insights help lay the foundations for teaching strategies. • It’s not just selecting and administering tests, but a thorough knowledge of their background. Become a detective gathering relevant background and current information from a variety of sources can affect decision making.
Insights from Related Areas • Gross and fine motor • Reflex and reaction • Developmental landmarks • Sensorymotor • Self help skills • Prevocational skills • Social interaction skills • Ambulatory devices • Posture evaluation • Eye hand behavior patterns • Visual status • Early reflexes • Joint range of motion and strength • Stability skills • Motor symptoms OT PT
Insights from Related Areas • Speech/Language • Nurse • School Counselor • School Phsycologist
In Summary • What is APE? • Who qualifies for APE? • Why do the qualify? • What do you want to know before assessing?
Works Cited • Horvat, M. Block, M. Kelly, L Developmental and Adapted Physical Activity Assessment (2007).