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Developing the Foundation for the PLAAFP Review of Key Concepts
A PLAAFP is…. • A statement of the student’s present levels of academic achievement and functional performance • States how the student’s disability affects involvement and progress in the general education curriculum…..or • For preschool students, as appropriate, how the disability affect the child’s participation in appropriate activities.
Academic Achievement • Generally refers to a student’s performance in academic areas (e.g., reading, language arts, and math)
Functional Performance • Generally refers to skills or activities that may not be considered academic or related to academic achievement • Often used in the context of routine activities of everyday living, and are varied depending on the individual needs of the student • Functional performance can impact educational achievement
The PLAAFP Must be…. • Data-based – Uses current, student specific data to describe current academic achievement and functional performance • Relevant – Written in areas affected by or impacted by the disability • Objective – Data supports the student’s strengths and his/her needs resulting from the disability • Measurable – Uses multiple data sources, and is observable
The PLAAFP Must be…. • Understandable – • Written in parent friendly language • Describes the impact of the disability on access to the general education curriculum • Scores must be self-explanatory. If not, an explanation must be included.
2 Minute Discussion Do evaluation personnel and teachers and other school staff have a language barrier when it comes to communicating strengths and weaknesses? How can the PLAAFP assist in overcoming the language barrier?
Major Components of the PLAAFP Foundation • Data-based • Describes student’s strengths • Delineates student’s needs resulting from the disability • Addresses effects of the disability on the student’s involvement and progress in the general education curriculum
Data-Based, Student Specific Information • Norm-referenced data from the student’s formal evaluation is one source of such information. • Curriculum-based measures that are pertinent to the student’s diagnosis might be included, as appropriate. • Scores should be self-explanatory.
Student Strengths • Reflect specific skills or behaviors that the student has mastered. • Reflect specific skills in which the student performs well for the curriculum domain or areas targeted.
Needs Resulting from the Disability Needs are determined by consideration of: • The important skills and behaviors that are critical for the student to learn in order to be able to participate and make progress in the general education curriculum • Include a description of supports or accommodations that may have mitigated the effects of the deficit
Effects of the Disability The PLAAFP…. • Describes how the disability impacts the student’s involvement in the general education curriculum • Conveys the unique challenges or barriers that exist for the student as a result of the disability • Describes the current levels of independence and need for assistance
Identifies whether or not a student meets criteria as a student with a disability. • Provides data to support the disability. • Provided s recommendations related to student access to the general education curriculum.
Common Mistakes • Common Mistake #1 • Include too much information making the student’s actual needs and strengths difficult to identify. • The PLAAFP becomes unfocused. • Common Mistake #2 • Include information that is too diagnostic….too specific (e.g., standard scores, stanines, etc.) without clarification/explanation.
Common Mistakes • Common Mistake #3 • Include information that is too general or too broad, and does not help the ARD determine why this student needs special education services. • Results in an irrelevant PLAAFP section. • Examples: • The student is struggling in reading. • The student has poor communication skills. • The student has inappropriate behavior.
Summary • Indicate specific academic and functional deficits. • Ensure identified deficits are confirmed by including measurable or observable data. • Avoid using broad or vague statements to describe an academic or functional deficit. • Indicate supports or accommodations that may or have mitigated effects of the deficit. • Reveal functional and academic areas in which the student is not struggling. • Write the Foundation for PLAAFP in narrative form, never use lists or bulleted points.
PLAAFP Statement Review Checklist • Individual Activity Followed by Small Group Discussion • Handout • Directions • Review the PLAAFP statements for Susan and Amy • Use the PLAAFP Statement Review Checklist to evaluate. • In your small groups, discuss how you rated each of the PLAAFP statements and why you rated each as you did.
Meet SusanExample (Mild Disability) • Susan is outgoing, has many friends, and enjoys participating in group activities. Susan completes her work but often forgets to turn it in on time; she needs three to four verbal reminders to turn in her work, which affects her grades. Susan can use addition and subtraction to solve problems involving whole numbers and decimals. On the last benchmark assessment with addition and subtraction of decimals, she scored an 87%. She can multiply whole numbers without the use of a calculator; one digit by one digit with 60% accuracy, one digit by two digits with 45% accuracy, and three digits by two digits with 20% accuracy. Susan knows her multiplications fact with 0’s – 5’s on sight with no errors but struggles with 6’s – 12’s. Struggling with multiplication facts is causing her to fall behind in math compared to other typical fifth grade students.
Meet AmyExample (Moderate to Severe Disability) Amy is a 10th grade student who attends Central High School. Amy is a student with a dual label of intellectual disability and autism. She receives the majority of her education in a self-contained setting and in the general education setting for Art and PE with accommodations and supports. Amy reads at a 1st grade level independently without symbol support; comprehends 2nd grade level w/symbol support. She is working on 2nd grade math, 3rd & 4th grade social studies, and science standards (prerequisite skills). Additionally, Amy: • Likes school & being around girls her own age • Enjoys the computer • Has difficulty processing language and speaks in 2-3 word phrases • Accommodations include: • 1:1 teacher/aide support for comprehension & impulsiveness • Activity Based Performance or Hands on tasks, including manipulatives • Visual instructions • Simplified text with symbol support
PLAAFP Statement Review Checklist • Individual Activity Followed by Small Group Discussion • Handout • Directions • Look in FIE Writer for a recently completed report. • Find the foundation statement for the PLAAFP. • Use the PLAAFP Statement Review Checklist to evaluate your PLAAFP statement. • In your small groups, discuss general impressions of your current work and areas of improvement.
Interrogate Your Understanding of the Link Between the FIE and PLAAFP • What were the parts of your PLAAFP development that remained the same as they were before this training session? • What parts of your PLAAFP development did you change? • What are your next steps in ensuring that your changes “stick”? • What are potential barriers? • What are potential solutions to overcome those barriers?