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Zebra mussels in KS quatic uisance Jason M. Goeckler KANSAS pecies Zebra mussels are native to the Black and Caspian Sea in Europe. Native range Arrived into the Great Lakes in 1988 in the ballast water of ships.

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zebra mussels in ks

Zebra mussels in KS

quatic

uisance

Jason M. Goeckler

KANSAS

pecies

slide4
Zebra mussels are established in El Dorado Reservoir, the Walnut River, Winfield City Lake, Cheney and Perry Reservoirs.

Regionally:

Lake of the Ozarks, Taneycomo, MO; Base Lake, NE; Grand Lake, Keystone, Kaw, Oologah, OK.

why are zm a problem
Why are ZM a problem?
  • 700,000/m2
  • Clog intake pipes
  • Clogs trash screens
  • Encrusts docks, buoys, ramps, rocks—anything left in the water
recreational problems
Recreational problems
  • Very sharp shells
  • Shells form windrows along shoreline
  • Odor
  • Can be transported easily
slide9

Fish and Wildlife Problems

  • Habitat/spawning area degradation
  • Filter feeders- up to a liter a day.
  • Reductions in density and biomass of the zooplankton community may result in reduced growth or abundance of age-0 fish
  • Increase in algal blooms
  • Bioaccumulation of toxins
  • Nationwide expenditures-$3.1 billion over 10 years.
adults
Adults
  • 6 to 45 mm
  • live to be 2-3 years old
  • Sexually mature at 8mm
  • Filter feed
  • Firmly attach with byssal threads
requirements
Requirements
  • Calcium levels: 28-109 mg/L (ELDR 65mg/L)
  • Water Temperatures: 0-930F
  • pH: 7.4-9.3 (ELDR 8.25)
  • DO: 4.2-13.3 mg/L (ELDR 7.44mg/L)
  • Settlement velocity <1.5 m/S
  • Habitat: abundant on hard surfaces and plants
  • Berkman et al. (1998) have provided evidence that zebra mussels can directly colonize sand particles smaller than 1 mm and then use their byssal threads to bind sediments into conglomerates.
el dorado timeline
El Dorado Timeline

2001 infestation

Fall 2003 discovery 50/m2

December 2003 3½ foot lake drawdown

135/m2 in dry area

Fall 2004 sample 25,178/m2

veligers
Veligers
  • Spawning normally begins at 540F
  • annually produce over 1 million eggs or 10 billion sperm
  • Microscopic, free floating
how do you kill them
How do you kill them?
  • Manual Removal (powerwash, scraping)
  • Chemical (Chlorine, Potassium, Al sulfate, Ozone, starch?)
  • Thermal shock, dewatering, flushing
  • Oxygen Deprivation
  • Desiccation
    • Summer (5 days min.)
    • Winter (48 hr at -29 °F)
  • Biobullets
chemical treatment
Chemical Treatment
  • 12 Ac. Virginia Lake
  • 131,000 kilograms Potassium Chloride
  • ~$330/Ac. ft
  • $50,160,000
risk assessment
Risk Assessment
  • Surveyed recreational boaters 1998-2005
  • 981 of 11,789 boaters visited El Dorado or Oologah, OK
  • El Dorado visitors traveled between 10-1562 miles mean distance of 112 mi.
  • Winfield City Lake identified as #9 at risk lake.
  • Cheney Reservoir identified as #1 at risk lake.
  • Perry didn’t make the list.

From: D.K. Britton and R.F. McMahon 2006

education spread is not inevitable
Education...spread is NOT inevitable
  • MN educational campaign
    • 1993 ZM in 2 inland lakes
    • 2007 ZM in 6 inland lakes
  • Signage, brochures, news releases, web
prevention recommendations
Prevention Recommendations
  • Inspect your equipment for plants, animals, and mud and remove before leaving the lake.
  • Drain water from all equipment (bilge, livewell, bait bucket, duck decoys etc.)
  • Clean all equipment before entering other waters.
  • Do not release plants/animals into another waterbody.
  • Do not dump unused bait or aquarium pets into the water.
  • Report new sightings.
  • Tell others what they should do to prevent ANS spread.
contact information
Contact information

Jason Goeckler

Kansas Wildlife & Parks

1830 Merchant St.

Emporia, KS 66801

620-342-0658

jasong@wp.state.ks.us