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Adoptions Services Bureau L.C.S.W. Supervisor Training for BBSE requirement Presented by: Joseph Randazzo, Ph. D., L.C.S.W. California Institute on Human Services. Sonoma State University 1801 East Cotati Avenue, Rohnert Park, CA 94928

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l c s w supervisor training for bbse requirement

Adoptions Services Bureau

L.C.S.W. Supervisor Training for BBSE requirement

Presented by:

Joseph Randazzo, Ph. D., L.C.S.W.

California Institute on Human Services. Sonoma State University

1801 East Cotati Avenue, Rohnert Park, CA 94928

slide2

“Supervision is the relationship between the supervisor and the supervisee that promotes the development of responsibility, skill, knowledge, attitudes, and ethical standards in the practice of clinical social work. The priority in the supervision process is accountability for client care within the parameters and ethical standards of the social work profession.”

National Association of Social Workers, 1994

why is clinical supervision necessary
Why is clinical supervision necessary?
  • It facilitates the professional development & training process for Graduate school trainees.
  • It facilitates the professional development and training process for unlicensed interns.
  • It facilitates the matriculation and, where necessary, training process for newly assigned licensed staff.
  • It facilitates quality assurance of services provided.
why is clinical supervision necessary5
Why is clinical supervision necessary?
  • It serves as a link between managerial and clinical staff.
  • It fulfills requirements for licensing.
  • It fulfills requirements for credentialing.
  • It meets external regulatory requirements.
  • It aids in the corrective or disciplinary process.
  • It fulfills requirements for third party payment.
how many hats does the clinical supervisor wear
How many hats does the clinical supervisor wear?
  • Sage - the person who helps define the role of psychotherapist
  • Guide - the person discusses casework issues
  • Tutor- the person who helps in license exam preparation
personal characteristics for supervisors
Personal Characteristics for Supervisors
  • Open, flexible, positive, and cooperative
  • Willing to accept and use feedback
  • Aware of impact on others
  • Ability to accept personal responsibility
  • Ability to express feelings effectively and appropriately
supervisor faq s
Supervisor FAQ’s

I am supervising L.C.S.W associates. How many hours of supervision training am I required to obtain?

Effective January 1, 2001, you will need to have completed fifteen (15) contact hours in supervision training obtained from a state agency or approved continuing education provider. This training may apply towards the continuing education requirements.

supervisor faq s13
Supervisor FAQ’s

I am supervising interns, trainees and associates. Will I need both 6 hours of supervision training for interns and 15 hours of supervision training for associates?

No. You are only required to obtain 15 contact hours in supervision training. The 6 hours required for supervising interns can be included in the 15 hours. However, if you continue to supervise interns you will need 6 hours of training every two years.

supervisor faq s14
Supervisor FAQ’s

Will I be required to submit proof of completion of this training?

No. However, upon written request of the board, the supervisor shall provide to the board any documentation which verifies the supervisor's compliance with the requirements.

supervisor faq s15
Supervisor FAQ’s

Supervisors of interns: Can coursework taken prior to January 1, 2000 count?

Yes. Coursework completed between January 1, 1997 and December 31, 1999 may apply.

supervisor faq s16
Supervisor FAQ’s

Supervisors of associates: Can coursework taken prior to January 1, 2001 count?

Yes. Coursework completed after January1, 1999 may apply.

l c s w associate faq s
L.C.S.W. Associate FAQ’s

When can I begin accruing hours of post-master’s experience?

Hours of experience will begin to count as of the issuance date listed on your associate registration certificate.

l c s w associate faq s18
L.C.S.W. Associate FAQ’s

When can I begin working in a private practice?

You cannot begin work in a private practice until your registration has been issued.

l c s w associate faq s19
L.C.S.W. Associate FAQ’s

How long may I retain my registration status?

A registration may be renewed annually after initial registration for a maximum of six years. If you have not completed your 24 months and 3,200 hours of supervised experience for the licensure requirements during the six year registration period you may apply for an associate registration extension. Failure to obtain an extension before your registration expires will result in your registration being permanently expired and it will not be renewed. However, you must apply for a new registration number if you meet all current requirements.

l c s w associate faq s20
L.C.S.W. Associate FAQ’s

Can I be paid while I’m earning my yours?

Yes. However, employed associates must be paid on a W-2 basis. Associates who work as independent contractors (receive 1099 instead of W-2 form) will not be able to count hours toward licensure.

l c s w associate faq s21
L.C.S.W. Associate FAQ’s

Can I receive pay directly from clients?

ABSOLUTELY NOT. The client must pay your employer.

l c s w associate faq s22
L.C.S.W. Associate FAQ’s

Am I required to submit the Employment Notification Form when I begin or end employment sites?

The employment notification/termination form is required only if you are employed in a private practice. DO NOT submit this form for settings other than private practice.

l c s w associate faq s23
L.C.S.W. Associate FAQ’s

How many years do I have in which to obtain my hours?

All hours of experience must be gained within a six year period which is determined once the Board receives your L.C.S.W. examination application . From the date the Board receives your examination application, we count back six years.

l c s w associate faq s24
L.C.S.W. Associate FAQ’s

How much supervision am I required to have?

You must have at least one hour of direct fact-to-face supervision for each week of experience claimed. Of the 24 months and 3,200 hours required, no more than 1,600 hours can be group supervision.

l c s w associate faq s25
L.C.S.W. Associate FAQ’s

How many hours must be gained under the supervision of a L.C.S.W?

A minimum of 2,200 hours.

l c s w associate faq s26
L.C.S.W. Associate FAQ’s

How many hours of group supervision am I required to have?

You are not required to have group supervision.

l c s w associate faq s27
L.C.S.W. Associate FAQ’s

If I am receiving supervision from a person who is not employed by my employer, what must the written contract consist of?

The contract shall include the responsibilities of the supervisor, employer, and associate. These contracts shall be submitted to the board with your experience verification form at the time you apply for licensure.

l c s w associate faq s28
L.C.S.W. Associate FAQ’s

Who may supervise me other than a L.C.S.W.?

A licensed mental health professional acceptable to the Board is one who, at the time of supervision, has possessed for at least two years a valid license as a psychotherapist, marriage, family, and child counselor, or physician certified in psychiatry by the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology. This does not include “board eligible” psychiatrists. They must possess full certification. A maximum of 1,000 hours may be obtained under these professionals.

slide30
How do the roles ofCLINICAL SUPERVISION & ADMINISTRATIVE SUPERVISIONcompliment or conflictwith each other?
developing and implementing an appropriate
Developing and implementing an appropriate:
  • Supervision Contract
  • Supervisor Evaluation Form
  • Supervisee Self-assessment Evaluation Form
relationships with
Relationships with:
  • Managers/Administrators
  • Licensed co-workers
  • Interns and trainees
supervisor tasks in the relationship
Supervisor tasks in the relationship
  • Ensure roles are clear (administratively)
  • Ensure responsibilities are clear
  • Ensure supervision is not psychotherapy
  • Ensure nothing in supervision jeopardizes client safety
supervisor tasks in the relationship36
Supervisor tasks in the relationship
  • Discuss policy for intern/supervisor absences
  • Deal with conflict immediately and directly
  • Keep in mind supervisor bears burden of responsibility
supervisor interventions
Supervisor Interventions
  • Facilitative: provide support & encouragement
  • Confrontive: compare & examine two issues
  • Conceptual: think analytically/theoretically
  • Prescriptive: coaching to perform or delete behaviors
  • Catalytic: comments designed to get things moving

(Loganbill, Hardy, & Delworth, 1982)

internal issues
Internal Issues
  • Commitment to ongoing education
  • Optimal use of time
  • Maintenance of a teaching/educational orientation
  • Openness to using various learning methods
  • Willingness to gear supervision towards professional growth
internal issues continued
Internal Issues (continued)
  • Willingness to gear supervision towards personal growth
  • Staying focused
  • Developing a strong theoretical framework (encouraging others)
  • Maintaining openness to other theoretical frameworks
  • Clearly understanding rationale behind decisions
external issues
External Issues
  • Availability
  • Openness to discuss the intern’s needs
  • Giving supportive feedback
  • Encouraging a teaching/educational orientation
  • Willingness to gear supervision towards supervisee’s professional growth
  • Willingness to gear supervision towards supervisee’s personal growth
external issues41
External Issues
  • Giving and expecting respect equally
  • Encouraging open discussion of professional issues
  • Encouraging others to develop a strong theoretical framework
  • Explaining rationale behind decisions clearly
  • Allowing others room for development of their ideas.
stage 1 laying the foundation
Stage 1:Laying the foundation
  • Establishing rapport
slide44

RAPPORT BUILDINGACTIVITY

On your card is written one half of a “Famous Pair.” Go around the room and find your “other half.”

With your partner, role-play a first-time supervisor/supervisee meeting in which the supervisor begins to build rapport.

Trade roles.

stage 1 laying the foundation continued
Stage 1:Laying the foundation (continued)
  • Establishing rapport
  • Making the contract
stage 2 developing clinical skills and professional identity
Stage 2: Developing clinical skills and professional identity
  • Social Learning Theory approach to skill development
  • Social Skills Training model for skill development
  • Psychodynamic Theory approach to skill development
stage 2 clinical skills methods for teaching therapeutic skills
Stage 2(clinical skills)Methods for teaching therapeutic skills
  • Focus on one skill (or a component of it)
  • Model or demonstrate the skill
  • Practice the skill
  • Evaluate
  • Master the skills
  • Use skill in therapy
stage 2 clinical skills essential skills
Stage 2(clinical skills)Essential Skills
  • Oral/written communication
  • Critical thinking
  • Interviewing
  • Assessment
  • Diagnostic process
stage 2 clinical skills essential skills49
Stage 2(clinical skills)Essential Skills
  • Cultural self-awareness/competency
  • Working with diversity
  • Use of self
  • Applying interventions
  • Crisis intervention
  • Treatment planning
stage 2 clinical skills essential skills50
Stage 2(clinical skills)Essential Skills
  • Psycho-educational approaches
  • Advocacy
  • Facilitating linkages
  • Utilizing research
  • Evaluation
stage 3 disengaging the relationship
Stage 3:Disengaging the relationship
  • Evaluating the process and growth
  • Exploring emotional reactions to disengagement
  • Fostering autonomy
supervision model littrell lee bordon lorenz
Supervision Model:Littrell, Lee-Bordon & Lorenz
  • Stage 1
    • The supervisor and supervisee establish a relationship.
    • They set goals.
    • They clarify the parameters of the supervision contract.
supervision model littrell lee bordon lorenz54
Supervision Model:Littrell, Lee-Bordon & Lorenz
  • Stage 2
    • The therapeutic counseling component is added - emphasis on interpersonal skills.
    • The teaching component is added - emphasis on instruction.
supervision model littrell lee bordon lorenz55
Supervision Model:Littrell, Lee-Bordon & Lorenz
  • Stage 3
    • As the supervisee matures clinically the supervisor becomes more of a consultant and less of an instructor.
    • The instructor consultation is more exploratory and reflective.
supervision model littrell lee bordon lorenz56
Supervision Model:Littrell, Lee-Bordon & Lorenz
  • Stage 4
    • The supervisee progresses to independence - self-supervision.
supervision model hogan
Supervision Model:Hogan
  • Level 1
    • The supervisee, being a novice, feels insecure.
    • The supervisee is intensely task-oriented.
    • The supervisee imitates the supervisor.
    • The supervisee is highly dependent on the methodology of choice.
    • The supervisee may not fully appreciate the impact on the client.
supervision model hogan58
Supervision Model:Hogan
  • Level 2
    • There is a conflict between dependency and autonomy.
    • The supervisee may fluctuate between over-confidence in new skills and being overwhelmed by new responsibilities.
supervision model hogan59
Supervision Model:Hogan
  • Level 3
    • The supervisee experiences an increase in self-confidence and self-awareness.
    • The supervisee is more collegial towards the supervisor and there is a decrease in the hierarchical nature of their relationship.
supervision model hogan60
Supervision Model:Hogan
  • Level 4
    • The supervisee has developed a sense of “artistry.”
    • The supervisee has developed a sense of intuitive judgement.
    • The supervisee increases awareness and insightfulness.
    • The supervisee gains a sense of security based on awareness of insecurity.

Hogan notes these levels are not discrete or mutually exclusive.

supervision model stoltenberg counselor complexity model
Supervision Model:Stoltenberg:Counselor Complexity Model
  • Stage 1
    • The supervisee imitates the supervisor.
    • The supervisee is unaware of dependency on the supervisor.
supervision model stoltenberg counselor complexity model62
Supervision Model:Stoltenberg:Counselor Complexity Model
  • Stage 2
    • There is an autonomy-dependency conflict with the supervisor
supervision model stoltenberg counselor complexity model63
Supervision Model:Stoltenberg:Counselor Complexity Model
  • Stage 3
    • There is conditional dependency on the supervisor.
supervision model stoltenberg counselor complexity model64
Supervision Model:Stoltenberg:Counselor Complexity Model
  • Stage 4
    • The supervisee becomes self-aware and interdependent.

This model stresses the importance of the training environment in enhancing stage to stage advancement.

supervision model loganbill hardy delsworth
Supervision Model:Loganbill, Hardy & Delsworth

1. Issues of competence (skills and techniques)

2. Issues of emotional awareness (knowing one’s self and emotions)

3. Issues of autonomy (self-directedness)

4. Issues of identity (theoretical consistency and conceptual integration)

supervision model loganbill hardy delsworth66
Supervision Model:Loganbill, Hardy & Delsworth

5. Issues of respect for individual differences (being tolerant & non-judgmental of others)

6. Issues of purpose and direction (structuring therapeutic direction & goals)

7. Issues of personal motivation (satisfaction & personal meanings being a therapist)

8. Issues of professional ethics (values)

associate l c s w information
Associate & L.C.S.W. Information

1. Business and Professions (B&P) Code Section 4996.18 States, in part, “Any person who wishes to be credited with experience towards the licensure requirements shall apply to the board for registration as an associate clinical social worker prior to obtaining that experience.”

The registration is renewed yearly for up to six years. A registration extension is granted upon application yearly for up to three years. The extension must be applied for prior to the expiration of current registration and prior to each yearly expiration.

associate l c s w information69
Associate & L.C.S.W. Information

2. Effective January 1, 1999, B&P Code Section 4996.21 requires registered associates to have a total of 3,200 hours of post master’s experience consisting of 1) a minimum of 2,000 hours of experience in psychosocial diagnosis, assessment, and treatment, including psychotherapy and counseling, and 2) a maximum of 1,200 hours of client-centered advocacy, consultation, evaluation, and research.

associate l c s w information70
Associate & L.C.S.W. Information

3. Associates will be required to receive at least one hour of direct supervisor contact for every 10 hours of client contact in each setting where experience is gained. A supervisory plan must be developed describing the goals and objectives of supervision. This plan must be submitted to the registrant of the Board within 30 days of supervision commencement.

associate l c s w information71
Associate & L.C.S.W. Information

4. Experience must be gained in not less than two nor more than six years as a registered associate. When a registrant applies for the licensing exams, the Board is able to count supervised experience back six years from the date an application for licensure is filed.

associate l c s w information72
Associate & L.C.S.W. Information

5. Applicants approved for the examinations must participate in an exam at least once a year in order to keep their file active. Once they are in the examination cycle, BBSE law only requires that they stay registered as an associate clinical social worker if they are employed in a private practice. If employed in any other setting, they are not required by BBSE to keep their registration current. However, some employers may require registration as a condition of employment, so the matter should be discussed further with them.

trainee information
Trainee Information

1. A trainee is an unlicensed person who is currently enrolled in a qualifying master’s or doctor’s degree program and has completed no less than 12 semester or 18 quarter units of course work.

trainee information74
Trainee Information

2. A person who enrolled in their degree program prior to January 1, 1990 or after January 1, 1994 was not required to register as a trainee. As of January 1, 1994, pre-degree hours of experience may be accrued after finishing of 12 semester or 18 quarter units of course work.

trainee information75
Trainee Information

3. A person who enrolled after January 1, 1990 or prior to December 31, 1993 was required to register as a trainee in order to begin accruing pre-degree hours of experience.

trainee information76
Trainee Information

4. Unregistered Trainees: The Supervisor Responsibility Statement (SRS) must be signed by each supervisor, retained by the trainee and submitted with the intern registration application.

trainee information77
Trainee Information

5. Registered Trainees: The SRS shall be submitted upon application for intern registration.

trainee information78
Trainee Information

6. Allowable work settings are defined in Business and Professions (B&P) Code Section 4980.40(e).

trainee information79
Trainee Information

7. B&P Code Section 4980.42(b) states, in part, that as of January 1, 1995, all hours of experience gained as a trainee shall be coordinated between the school and the site where the hours are being accrued. The school shall approve each site and shall have a written agreement with each site that details each party’s responsibilities, including the methods by which supervision shall be provided.

trainee information80
Trainee Information

8. For students who enroll in a qualifying degree program on or after January 1, 1995, the practicum shall include a minimum of 150 hours of face-to-face experience counseling individuals, couples, families, or groups.

To obtain additional information regarding trainees, contact BBSE at (916) 445-4933

changes in social work experience
Changes in social work experience

1. S.B.1 1983 brings on changes regarding the supervised experience for Associate Social Workers. It adds B&P Code Section 4996.21 and applies to those applying for registration on or after January 1, 1999 (If you submitted your associate application on or before December 31, 1998, this new section does not apply to you).

changes in social work experience82
Changes in social work experience

2. The new law does not redefine the types of services performed or what qualifies as supervision. However, it does require registrants to accrue a minimum of 2,000 hours of psychosocial diagnosis, assessment, and treatment, including psychotherapy and counseling. In addition, registrants may obtain a maximum of 1,200 hours in client-centered advocacy, consultation, evaluation, and research.

changes in social work experience83
Changes in social work experience

3. Along with the minimum/maximum requirements, registrants will be required to receive at least one hour of direct supervisor contact for every 10 hours of client contact in each setting where experience is gained. That is, they must be able to show at least one hour of individual supervision or two hours of group supervision for every 10 hours of direct client contact. This ratio is not averaged over a one-week period, it is averaged over the duration of the setting.

individual
Individual
  • Goals
  • Experience
  • Learning styles
  • Theoretical orientation
group
Group
  • Advantages & limitations
  • Types
  • Membership
  • Entrances & exits
  • Parameters
n a s w code of ethics
N.A.S.W. Code of Ethics

Social Workers’ ethical responsibilities:

  • to clients
  • to colleagues
  • in practice settings
  • as professionals
  • to the Social Worker profession
  • to the broader society
ethical and legal issues for supervisors
Ethical and legal issues for supervisors
  • Malpractice
  • Duty to warn
  • Liability (direct and vicarious)
  • Mandatory reporting
  • Informed consent
ethical and legal issues for supervisors90
Ethical and legal issues for supervisors
  • Due process
  • Dual relationships
  • Sexual involvement
  • Confidentiality
  • Competency
support consultation on ethical issues
Support/consultation onethical issues
  • Consult with colleagues
  • Consult with attorney
  • Call BBSE
  • Call NASW/CAMFT
  • Call other professional associations
ethics activity

ETHICS ACTIVITY

Break into groups of four or five people.

Read the scenarios given and discuss:

1. What ethical issues are involved?

2. Are there alternative actions for the situation?

3. Is there a “correct” course of action?

nasw standards for social work case management

NASW Standards for Social Work Case Management

Prepared by the NASW Case Management Standards Work Group

Approved by the NASW Board of Directors, June 1992

nasw standards for social work case management94
NASW Standards forSocial Work Case Management

Standard 1:

The social work case manager shall have a baccalaureate or graduate degree from a social work program accredited by the Council on Social Work Education and shall possess the knowledge, skills, and experience necessary to competently perform case management activities.

nasw standards for social work case management95
NASW Standards forSocial Work Case Management

Standard 2:

The social work case manager shall use his or her professional skills and competence to serve the client whose interests are of primary concern.

nasw standards for social work case management96
NASW Standards forSocial Work Case Management

Standard 3:

The social work case manager shall ensure that clients are involved in all phases of case management practice to the greatest extent possible.

nasw standards for social work case management97
NASW Standards forSocial Work Case Management

Standard 4:

The social work case manager shall ensure the client’s right to privacy and ensure appropriate confidentiality when information about the client is released to others….

nasw standards for social work case management98
NASW Standards forSocial Work Case Management

Standard 5:

The social work case manager shall intervene at the client level to provide and/or coordinate the delivery of direct services to clients and their families.

nasw standards for social work case management99
NASW Standards forSocial Work Case Management

Standard 6:

The social work case manager shall intervene at the service systems level to support existing case management services and to expand the supply of and improve access to needed services.

nasw standards for social work case management100
NASW Standards forSocial Work Case Management

Standard 7:

The social work case manager shall be knowledgeable about resource availability, service costs, and budgetary parameters and be fiscally responsible in carrying out all case management functions and activities.

nasw standards for social work case management101
NASW Standards forSocial Work Case Management

Standard 8:

The social work case manager shall participate in evaluative and quality assurance activities designed to monitor the appropriateness and effectiveness of both the service delivery system in which the case management operates as well as the case manager’s own case management services, and to otherwise ensure full professional accountability.

nasw standards for social work case management102
NASW Standards forSocial Work Case Management

Standard 9:

The social work case manager shall carry a reasonable caseload that allows the case manager to effectively plan, provide, and evaluate case management tasks related to client and system interventions.

nasw standards for social work case management103
NASW Standards forSocial Work Case Management

Standard 10:

The social work case manager shall treat colleagues with courtesy and respect and strive to enhance inter-professional, intra-professional, and interagency cooperation on behalf of the client.

nasw standards for practice of clinical social work

NASW Standards for Practice of Clinical Social Work

Prepared by the NASW Provisional Council on Clinical Social Work

Approved by the NASW Board of Directors, June 1984, revised April 1989

nasw standards for the practice of clinical social work
NASW Standards for thePractice of Clinical Social Work

Standard 1:

Clinical social workers shall function in accordance with the ethics and the stated standards of the profession, including its accountability procedures.

nasw standards for the practice of clinical social work106
NASW Standards for thePractice of Clinical Social Work

Standard 2:

Clinical social workers shall have and continue to develop specialized knowledge and understanding of individuals, families, and groups, and of the therapeutic and preventive interventions.

nasw standards for the practice of clinical social work107
NASW Standards for thePractice of Clinical Social Work

Standard 3:

Clinical social workers shall respond in a professional manner to all persons who seek their assistance.

nasw standards for the practice of clinical social work108
NASW Standards for thePractice of Clinical Social Work

Standard 4:

Clinical social workers shall be knowledgeable about the services available in the community and make appropriate referrals for their clients.

nasw standards for the practice of clinical social work109
NASW Standards for thePractice of Clinical Social Work

Standard 5:

Clinical social workers shall maintain their accessibility to clients.

nasw standards for the practice of clinical social work110
NASW Standards for thePractice of Clinical Social Work

Standard 6:

Clinical social workers shall safeguard the confidential nature of the treatment relationship and of the information obtained within that relationship.

nasw standards for the practice of clinical social work111
NASW Standards for thePractice of Clinical Social Work

Standard 7:

Clinical social workers shall maintain access to professional case consultation.

nasw standards for the practice of clinical social work112
NASW Standards for thePractice of Clinical Social Work

Standard 8:

Clinical social workers shall establish and maintain professional offices and procedures.

nasw standards for the practice of clinical social work113
NASW Standards for thePractice of Clinical Social Work

Standard 9:

Clinical social workers shall represent themselves to the public with accuracy.

nasw standards for the practice of clinical social work114
NASW Standards for thePractice of Clinical Social Work

Standard 10:

Clinical social workers shall engage in the independent private practice of clinical social work only when qualified to do so.

nasw standards for the practice of clinical social work115
NASW Standards for thePractice of Clinical Social Work

Standard 11:

Clinical social workers shall have the right to establish an independent private practice.

conditions for evaluation bernard goodyear
Conditions for EvaluationBernard & Goodyear
  • If you don’t enjoy supervising don’t supervise
  • The supervision relationship is unequal (power/authority)
  • Clarity adds to positive content
  • Address supervisee defensiveness openly
  • Spell out evaluative process at the outset
  • Address individual differences openly
conditions for evaluation bernard goodyear118
Conditions for EvaluationBernard & Goodyear
  • Evaluation should be ongoing (and mutual)
  • Avoid premature evaluation
  • Supervisees should be able to witness supervisor‚s professional development
  • Evaluation must occur within a strong administrative structure.
  • Always keep an eye on the relationship.
methods of evaluation
Methods of Evaluation
  • Progress notes
  • Log notes
  • Critical reflection
  • Audiotape
  • Videotape
  • Live observation
  • Co-therapist
general areas of evaluation
General areas of evaluation
  • Factual knowledge
  • Generic clinical skills
  • Specific clinical skills
  • Clinical judgment
  • Interpersonal attributes
essential areas of knowledge evaluated
Essential areas of knowledge evaluated
  • Theoretical frameworks
  • DSM Diagnoses
  • Intervention modalities
  • Human development
  • Cultural competency
essential areas of knowledge evaluated122
Essential areas of knowledge evaluated
  • Communication
  • Crisis Intervention
  • Biochemical treatment
  • Substance abuse
  • Diversity issues
essential areas of knowledge evaluated123
Essential areas of knowledge evaluated
  • Case management/advocacy
  • Resources/programs
  • Values/ethics
parallel process model ekstein wallerstein
Parallel Process ModelEkstein & Wallerstein

This model notes the analogy between supervisor/supervisee and therapist/client. When the therapist is “stuck” on a problem with a client, not knowing what to do, he or she may take on elements of the client’s role in the supervisee relationship. This process is noted to be generally unconscious. There are several possible dyads within the parallel process.

parallel process model ekstein wallerstein126
Parallel Process ModelEkstein & Wallerstein

1. The therapist, in supervision, may act out like the client.

2. The supervisor may treat the therapist as s/he would like the client to be treated.

3. The therapist may treat the client the way the supervisor treats him/her.

4. The therapist may treat the client the way s/he would like the supervisor to treat him/her.

clinical rhombus model ekstein wallerstein
Clinical Rhombus ModelEkstein & Wallerstein
  • The supervisor, supervisee, client, & administrator each occupy a different corner on the rhombus. Each interacts in relationship to the others in a total of six dyads:

1. Supervisor - supervisee.

2. Supervisor - client

3. Supervisor - administrator

clinical rhombus model ekstein wallerstein128
Clinical Rhombus ModelEkstein & Wallerstein

Dyads, continued:

4. Supervisee - client

5. Supervisee - administrator

6. Administrator - client

clinical rhombus model ekstein wallerstein129
Clinical Rhombus ModelEkstein & Wallerstein
  • Interaction occurs through each of the phases of maturation: beginning, middle, and termination.
  • To the extent that all four components remain equidistant from each other as the (emotional) process is worked out “maturation” can occur. Frantz noted supervisors (and administrators) should monitor and adjust their positions so as not to become over-involved with supervisees and their clients; instead they should remain objective towards the supervisee and attend more closely to administrative responsibilities.
relational model ganzer ornstein
Relational ModelGanzer & Ornstein
  • The supervisor - supervisee relationship moves from traditional hierarchical view where the supervisor as the expert and the supervisee is reconciling “pathology.”
  • Evolves from view of supervision relationship as linear, with supervisor being the expert functioning as a disinterested objective teacher.
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Relational ModelGanzer & Ornstein
  • Supervision takes on a cyclical nature in which both members share in knowledge and authority.
  • Instruction is replaced by dialogue.

While the relational model is being explored in psychodynamic supervision its implications have not been clearly elaborated on.

warning signs that supervisee is having problems
Warning signs that supervisee is having problems
  • Resistance is defined as a coping behavior by a supervisee that interferes with the learning process. It can take on several forms:
    • Active
    • Passive
    • Blatant
    • Discrete
signs that a supervisee is having problems
Signs that a supervisee is having problems
  • Supervisees whose sessions are taped for evaluative purposes may claim the taping process causes them to be less effective to gain leniency.

(Bauman, 1972)

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Signs that a supervisee is having problems
  • Supervisee may claim taping interferes with the clinical process and even cite experts with this perspective.
  • Supervisee may cite experts who oppose supervisor’s ideology.

(Guthiel, 1977)

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Signs that a supervisee is having problems
  • Supervisee may intellectualize, rationalize, or become tangential to avoid taking risks.

(Dodge, 1982)

warning signs activity

WARNING SIGNS ACTIVITY

1. Find your partner from the earlier “famous pairs.”

2. Read the information sheet for your role as either,

A) Supervisee having problems, or

B) Supervisor observing the supervisee’s behavior.

3. Role-play a supervisor-supervisee meeting.

Supervisors: What signals is the supervisee giving? How do you respond?

Supervisees: How do the supervisor’s actions affect you?

some games played in supervisee resistance
Some “games” played in supervisee resistance

1. Flattery

2. Redefining the relationship

  • Client-therapist
  • Professional peers
  • Friends
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Some “games” played in supervisee resistance

3. Reducing the supervisor’s power by capitalizing on lack of knowledge or exposure to the particular casework area

4. Steering session away from clinical weak points or areas of discomfort and/or talk about areas where the supervisee feels strong

(Kadushin, 1976)

sources of threat to supervisees
Sources of threat to supervisees
  • Evaluation anxiety
  • Performance anxiety
  • Personal issues in supervision
  • Deficits within the supervision relationship
motivation to risk trying new skills
Motivation to risk trying new skills
  • Short-term anticipated rewards
  • Long-term anticipated rewards
  • Short-term anticipated punishments for not risking
  • Long-term anticipated punishments for not risking
methods for reducing supervisee resistance
Methods for reducing supervisee resistance
  • Recognizing supervisee anxiety
  • Locating the source of threat or resistance
  • Brainstorming ways to reduce the experience of threat
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“Tension, confusion, uncertainty, irritation, or even feelings of anger can pervade the sessions between supervisor and therapist. But these hard times can provide significant learning opportunities. That is, many problems can arise between supervisor and therapist that can turn out to be the essence of the teaching/learning process.”

(Allphin, 1987)