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U.S. Programs & Policy. Robert Crane Senior Advisor National Coordination Office United States of America 1 st GNSS Vulnerabilities and Solutions Conference Baska, Krk Island, Croatia 8 September, 2008. Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) New applications introduced every day.

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u s programs policy

U.S. Programs & Policy

Robert CraneSenior AdvisorNational Coordination OfficeUnited States of America

1st GNSS Vulnerabilities and Solutions ConferenceBaska, Krk Island, Croatia 8 September, 2008

global navigation satellite system gnss new applications introduced every day
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS)New applications introduced every day
  • Wireless/mobile applications
  • Child/pet tracking
  • LE/Suspect tracking
  • Spacecraft control
  • Power grid management
  • Precision construction
  • Automatic snowplow guidance

Approx. GPS coordinates:


space based solutions for disaster management emergency response
Space-Based Solutions for Disaster Management & Emergency Response

…weather info

…plume modeling

…incident reports

…video/cam feeds

FEMA: Tracking logistics assets and commodity shipments

gnss augmentations
GNSS & Augmentations

Critical Component of the Global Infrastructure

homeland security factors
Homeland Security Factors
  • U.S. Department of Homeland Security (2003)
  • Homeland Security Presidential Directive -- 7: Critical Infrastructure Identification, Prioritization, and Protection (2003)
  • National Infrastructure Protection Plan (2006)
    • 17 Critical Infrastructure/Key Resources
    • +1 Critical Manufacturing (2008)
  • U.S. Space-Based Positioning, Navigation and Timing Policy (2004)
  • Interference Detection and Mitigation Plan (2007)
gnss a global utility essential component of multiple critical infrastructures
GNSS – A Global UtilityEssential Component of Multiple Critical Infrastructures
  • Which critical infrastructure & industry sectors use GNSS signals and technology.
  • For what purposes
  • To what degree
    • dependencies, interdependencies, and cascading effects
    • common vulnerabilities and threat scenarios
    • cross-sector measures to reduce or manage risk
    • research & development needs
  • Use is critical to safety-of-life and safe operations
assessing risk
Assessing Risk

Can Lead to Continuous Improvements to Enhance Protection

Risk = function (Threat, Vulnerability, Consequence)

Risk: Expected magnitude of loss due to an attack, natural disaster, or other incident, along with the likelihood of such an event occurring and causing that loss.

  • Interference
    • Unintentional: Ionospheric, Radio Frequency; Solar Flares
    • Intentional: jamming, spoofing, meaconing
  • GPS Jammers a significant concern; localized, but expected to grow
  • Physical Threats: Satellites and Control Segments

Threat: measure of the likelihood that a specific type of attack will be initiated against a specific target.

  • Future: Increase in use by critical infrastructure
  • Power companies: Time and Frequency (T/F)
  • Transportation: computer-based controls of aircraft, trains, vehicles
  • Tracking: GIS, Logistics/Supply Chain Management, Mapping
  • Remote transactions: banking/finance (wireless), time stamp/authentication
  • Telecommunications: timing, navigation services
  • GPS-reliant components in cell phones, personal electronics, networked computers systems

Vulnerability: measure of the likelihood that various types of safeguards against threat scenarios will fail.

vulnerabilities continued
  • U.S. has conducted several studies
  • Use of GNSS applications in public and private sector wide-spread …and growing
  • Primary uses are safety-of-life (loss of navigation & control systems) and T/F applications
  • T/F is economic and new vulnerabilities evolve over time
  • Coordinated effort between GNSS operators and private sector

Vulnerability: measure of the likelihood that various types of safeguards against threat scenarios will fail.

  • Unintentional interference (detection, location, mitigation)
  • Jamming reduces capability, but not destructive across infrastructure (temporary)
  • Spoofing, includes meaconing, more concern (rare)
  • Resource implications for solving problems

Consequence: magnitude of the negative effects if the system is damaged, destroyed, or disrupted by an attack, natural disaster, or other incident.

protective measures deter threats mitigate vulnerabilities minimize consequences
Protective MeasuresDeter Threats – Mitigate Vulnerabilities – Minimize Consequences
  • Mitigation and Use of Backup Systems
    • Near equal capability:
      • Positioning/Navigation: VOR/DME, TACAN, ILS
      • Timing: Internet Time Service, Network Time Protocol,

atomic clocks, computer

    • Temporary fix (resourcefulness, ingenuity)
    • Work-around (manual)
    • T/F users have more options for back-ups
  • Protection of the RNSS spectrum; international cooperation
  • Integrate into exercises and training
  • Require jam-resistance and/or consider anti-jam solutions for

future satellite vehicles

  • Reporting/Coordinating:
    • U.S. Air Force, GPS Operations Center (constellation)
    • Federal Aviation Administration, National Operations Center (aviation)
    • U.S. Coast Guard, Navigation Center (civil interface)
    • Federal Communications Commission (enforcement)

Protective actions: steps to mitigate the overall risk to the system or its interconnecting links.

a culture of resiliency
A Culture of Resiliency*
  • Robustness: ability to keep operating or stay standing
    • Design systems strong enough to take a punch
    • Devise substitutable or redundant systems
    • Invest to withstand low-probability, but high-consequence scenarios
  • Resourcefulness: skillfully managing event once it unfolds
    • Identify and prioritize options; control impacts; communicate decisions
    • Depends on people, not technology
    • Pre-plan resources for planners and responders
  • Rapid Recovery: capacity to get things back to normal soonest
    • Contingency plans prepared and tested
    • Competent response operations
    • Put right people and resources to the right place (at the right time)
  • New Lessons: document/draw from the experience
    • People must be willing to make pragmatic changes
    • Improve robustness/resourcefulness/recovery capabilities

*From an essay by Stephen E. Flynn, Council on Foreign Affairs, found at ForeignAffairs.org (March/April 2008)

Resiliency: capacity of a system to maintain function during or to recover from an incident (NIPP).

interference detection and mitigation plan
Interference Detection and Mitigation Plan
  • Directed by U.S. Policy (2004).
  • Developed by DHS; approved by President (2007)
  • Establishes foundation for planning and actions
  • Promotes coordination, cooperation and information exchange
  • Oversight by a DHS executive committee and work group
  • Main planning in U.S., but acknowledges international dependencies and potential for service disruptions, whether intentional or unintentional
  • More information at pnt.gov
gps improvements
GPS Improvements
  • Launched 3 modernized satellites in past 12 months
    • Largest GPS constellation size ever
    • Retiring old satellites improves overall GPS accuracy
  • New, modernized master control station
    • Improved operational flexibility and responsiveness
    • Added backup control station
  • Expanded GPS ground network to triple amount of monitor data sent to control station
    • 10 — 15% improvement in accuracy of GPS data broadcast
  • Additional Civil Signals: Second (L2C), Third (L5), Fourth (L1)
gps iii update
GPS III Update
  • Contract for GPS III-A satellites awarded in May
  • Contracts for Next-Generation Operational Control Segment (OCX), awarded in November, 2007
  • Future increments of GPS III will incorporate additional capabilities to address vulnerabilities, e.g. higher power, anti-jam features
u s policy promotes global use of gnss technology
U.S. Policy Promotes Global Use of GNSS Technology
  • No direct user fees for civil GPS services
    • Provided on a continuous, worldwide basis
  • Open, public signal structures for all civil services
    • Promotes equal access for user equipment manufacturing, applications development, and value - added services
    • Encourages open, market - driven competition
  • Global compatibility and interoperability with GPS
  • Service improvements for civil, commercial, and scientific users worldwide
  • Protection of RNSS spectrum
keys to global success of gnss
Keys to Global Success of GNSS
  • Cooperation, interoperability and compatibility is a priority
    • Bilateral: Europe, Japan, Russia, India, Australia
    • Multilateral: ICAO, IMO, NATO, International Committee on GNSS
    • Protection of RNSS Spectrum
  • Program stability and performance
    • Augmentations enable even higher performance
    • New civil signal available now
    • Many additional upgrades scheduled
  • Encourage worldwide use of civil GNSS and augmentations
  • Policy stability and transparency
  • Commercial entrepreneurship and investment
  • GNSS: essential component of multiple global critical infrastructure sectors
  • Address vulnerabilities and improve protective capabilities, performance and resistance to interference

Robert Crane

Senior Advisor


6822 Herbert C. Hoover Building 1401 Constitution Ave, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20230United States of America

Tel: +1 (202) 482-5809Email: PNT.Office@PNT.gov