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Roundtable II Cooperation in Technology Transfer Tuesday, 29 November 2005 Vienna, Austria Structure of the Presentation Technology Transfer - Insight Technology Competitiveness in Developing countries - Factors Technology Upgradation - Hindsight Technology Development – Challenges

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Roundtable II

Cooperation in Technology Transfer

Tuesday, 29 November 2005

Vienna, Austria

structure of the presentation
Structure of the Presentation
  • Technology Transfer - Insight
  • Technology Competitiveness in Developing countries - Factors
  • Technology Upgradation - Hindsight
  • Technology Development – Challenges
  • India – Case studies
  • Technology Transfer – Way Ahead
technology transfer
Technology Transfer

Technology acquisition

Technology Transfer


Skill Development - Know How


Technology adaptation

Knowledge Management

Patents & Licenses


Increases production efficiency - Long Term competitiveness of SMEs

technology transfer process
Technology Transfer - Process

Technology Creation

Technology Sourcing












Decision Making



Technology Transfer is the suite of processes encompassing all dimensions of the origins and uptake of know-how, experience and equipment amongst, across and within countries, organizations and institutions.

technology transfer main issues
Technology Transfer – Main Issues
  • Slow uptake of technologies that support sustainable development, despite many initiatives for increased and effective transfer of technologies.
  • Need to emphasize on specific and practical methodologies and tools for promoting the adoption and use of latest technologies.
  • Absence of ubiquitous approach. Need to prioritize initiatives for developing countries depending on their needs and status.
technology competitiveness in developing countries factors8
Technology Competitiveness in Developing countries - Factors
  • Technology imports
    • Small number of developed countries provide most of technological innovations. Most of the developing countries are neither innovating nor adopting. <Technology innovating economies..>
    • Lacks capability to create globally competitive technologies
    • Lack of access to information on new technologies and innovations
  • Technology infrastructure
    • R&D institutes and testing facilities in developing countries fall short of quality when compared to industrialized countries
    • Lack of collaborative research
    • Isolation of universities and R&D from Industry
technology competitiveness in developing countries factors9
Technology Competitiveness in Developing countries - Factors
  • Pace of technological change
    • SMEs lack the capability to constantly upgrade technologies in view of rapidly changing technologies in developed countries
    • Easier in Process industries
  • Technology acquisition
    • Unit level technology absorption is low
    • Lack of incentive, direction and capability to update existing technologies
    • Lack of ready access to capital
    • Relatively high transaction cost
technology competitiveness in developing countries factors10
Technology Competitiveness in Developing countries - Factors
  • Unit Level Interventions
    • Smaller firms find difficult to finance and coordinate the requisite level of technological activity
    • Low participation in network of organizations and institutions involved in diffusing information on technologies. (specially SMEs)
  • Availability of Skilled Manpower
    • Shortage of trained personnel
    • Lack of continuous capability development of manpower in technical dimensions
    • New technologies are not adopted due to lack of skilled people thus widening the technology gap.
knowledge drivers of the 21 st century




Knowledge Drivers of the 21st Century



Building Blocks & Knowledge tools of 21ST Century





Technology Foresight Process Summary







Define the question(s)

‘Global’ Trends

Business Vectors

Technology Dynamics

Growth Opportunities

Organization’s Power Assets

Emerging Growth Opportunities

©L Carlson Consulting


Technology Interaction Matrix

Pacer, Gating


Human/Mach Int

2nd order effect

Adv. Mat.

Med. Dev.










Med. Dev.

H/M Int.


Exponential Technol.





Adv. Mat.



Application Needs

ict support to product design ois design manufacturing customer feedback integrated model
ICT Support to Product DesignOIS: Design – Manufacturing – Customer Feedback : Integrated Model
customer relationship management crm
Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

Customer Relationship Management (CRM)

  • Systems that allow you to manage relationship
  • Strategy that puts the customer first, it's getting intimate with the customer - solidifying loyalty
  • Understanding and tracking customer habits
  • Links data together from all parts of the business
  • Warehouse of all the info of your customer
  • Maximizer, ACT!,, Pivotal
nanotechnology applications

Building blocks

Environmental, energy,

health & safety systems

Coatings and surfaces

Consolidates and



and systems







Dispersions &







Processing and




System architectures

Modeling tools and instruments

Nanotechnology Applications

Management of applications matter !

technology development challenges21
Technology Development - Challenges
  • Can be met through innovations management
  • To be able to invest in technology creation at the risk of failing
  • Adequate infrastructure required for technology creation
  • IPR issues
  • Adequate information relevant to strategic planning and market development
  • Developing countries have already lost precious time
  • Creation of useful and usable technologies is a major factor in ensuring that there is opportunity to make informed and confident choices in technology investment projects

Technology Creation should be best left for developed countries. Developing countries should focus on adapting, learning and dissemination.

machine tools sector in india
Machine Tools sector in India
  • A holistic programme implemented by UNIDO-ICAMT (International Centre for Advancement of Manufacturing Technology).
  • Emphasis on Technology dissemination through sensitization workshops, unit level interventions, participation in International fairs, Technology missions, skill upgration and market development activities.
  • Growth in 2004-05 was 47%
  • Annual growth of over 90% in the number of CNC machines production in the last two years.
  • 50% increase in production of components and accessories.
  • 101% increase in export of target group of machine tools – from USD 6.6 million to USD 13.3 million

While the Technology innovation is still low, the sector has done extremely well due to Technology dissemination, Skill upgradation, Unit level interventions & market development activities.

auto components sector in india
Auto Components sector in India
  • Indian auto component industry has grown from US $ 3.9 Billion to US $ 6.7 Billion in 3 years
  • Exports have increased from US $ 578 Million in 2001-02 to US $ 1000 Million in 2003-04.
  • India has become the 2nd largest two wheeler manufacturers in the world
  • Increased competitiveness is due to increased capability of latest technologies for continuous improvement when compared to other countries.
  • Emphasis on process engineering skills, product engineering and continuous improvement capability.

While the Research & Development activities are still at low level, the sector has witnessed phenomenal growth due to application of ICT tools, Technology dissemination, Skill upgradation, Knowledge management in the area of Engineering Design.


Indian Software: Global Brand

By Verticals:

USD Million

By Geography:

  • Software & Services Grow over 30 %

~ 80% of Fortune 500 outsource their IT from India



India: Fast Growing Market …

4 million PC Shipments – 2004

India Hardware Industry projected at US $ 69 billion by 2008

2.5 million broadband in 2004

65 million mobile subscribers

- 2004

10 million broadband in 2008

14 Mil PC Shipments - 2008

200 M Mobile subscribers by


1 million Set Top Box – 2004

9.25 million TV Sets – 2004

  • More than 3 million cell phone subscribers added every month
  • Sub $ 40 Mobile Phone
  • Sub $ 225 PC ‘s would increase PC penetration.

15 million Set Top Box - 2008

16 million TV Sets – 2008

indian it industry

Industry Turnover (2004-05) US $ 27.75 billion

  • Hardware Domestic: US $ 5 billion
  • Hardware Exports: US $ 1.25 billion
  • Software Exports: US $ 17 billion
  • Software Domestic: US $ 4.5 billion
  • Industry Turnover by 2008: More than US $ 100 Billion

Indian IT Industry

While the Research & Development activities have been low, the sector has witnessed boom due to knowledge workers, Skill upgradation & capability development.


Indian Telecom Sector




  • Monopoly service providers
  • Competitive regime with multiple players (public & private sector) across service segments


  • Peak long distance tariff from Delhi to Mumbai of Rs.30/minute ($ 0.65/minute)
  • Peak cellular outgoing tariff of Rs.16/minute ($ 0.35/minute)
  • Rs.2-3 per minute ($ 0.04-0.07/minute)
  • Rs.1-2 per minute ($ 0.02-0.04/minute)


  • 18 mn fixed line subscribers in March 1998
  • <1 mn cellular subscribers in March 1998
  • 48 mn fixed line subscribers including FWT and Limited mobility CDMA
  • 56 mn mobile subscribers

Industry Size

  • Total industry revenue of US$ 4 bn in FY98
  • ~ US$ 18 bn for FY05
  • <2% telephony penetration in March 1998
  • 9.37% penetration


  • No regulator
  • Independent and active regulator (TRAI) and appellate tribunal (TDSAT)


TRAI: Telecom Regulatory Authority of India; TDSAT : Telecom Disputes Settlement and Appellate Tribunal

indian telecom sector latest technology at affordable prices
Indian Telecom Sector - Latest Technology at Affordable Prices
  • National policy is technology neutral but encourages global state of the art technologies
  • All leading equipment and handset vendors have established significant presence in India
  • They have been instrumental in making mass wireless service viable
    • Capex / sub has dropped from US$300-400/sub to US$70-80/sub
    • Entry handset prices have dropped from US$400-500 to US$50
  • Coexistence of dual wireless technology – CDMA and GSM
  • Growth at the rate of 30%

Leapfrogging in Technology Adaptation has attributed to Telecom boom.

pan african network
PAN-African Network
  • 53 PAN-African countries to be connected as one network through Satellite and Fiber Optics
  • Network to provide:
    • Tele-education
    • Tele-medicine
    • VVIP communication network
    • Internet
    • Videoconferencing
    • VOIP services
    • Support e-governance, e-commerce, infotainment, resource mapping and metrological services
pan african network31
PAN-African Network
  • To connect 5 universities to 53 learning centers, 10 Super specialty hospitals to 53 Remote hospitals in rural areas
  • Indian Institutions to only make the programme running till the expertise is passed on to PAN-African countries
  • PAN-African network will be established, maintained and managed within a period of 3 years.
  • Handholding training will be imparted to the users and handed over by the end of 3 years

Novel way for sharing of knowledge & technology

technology transfer in developing countries road map
Technology Transfer in Developing countries – Road Map
  • Establishment of International Technology Centres
  • Adopt demand-driven approach
  • Focus on specific industrial sectors
  • Establish Technology Trackers in leading industrialized countries
  • Encourage application of technologies at the enterprise level through rapid build up of awareness of need, diagnosis of economical requirements, technology transfer management etc
  • Emphasis on capability development
  • Establishment of cooperative and collaborative partnerships between key stakeholders
technology transfer in developing countries road map37
Technology Transfer in Developing countries – Road Map
  • Implementation of technology driven programmes
  • Focus on technology areas of core competence and with cross sectoral impact demand of developing countries, thus increasing the international activities.
  • Design and implementation of technology transfer plans and specific actions
  • Dissemination of technology information – access to reliable and relevant information
  • Skill development activities
  • Provide outreach programmes for SMEs for effective dissemination.
  • A system that minimizes contractual and other legal risks.
  • Access to Decision Support Tools.
technology upgradation key focus areas
Technology Upgradation – Key Focus Areas

Key Drivers


Technology Innovations/R&D

Global Benchmarking of Quality

Market access

ICT Applications to Technology & Management Processes

Technology Dissemination

Capacity building

Skill upgradation