NBE 391 Society and Politics (Elective Course)
How do you define society ? Define Nepalese politics ? Say interlink between society and politics. How politics is considered as the science of government ? How politics is considered as an art ? State the relationship between society and politics. Share you expectation about your society look like. Once you heard about politics, what do you find on it ? Society is inside man and man is inside society, explain. “Man is by nature political animal”, how do you interpret it ? List out the institutions of Government of Nepal. What is the role of Interest Groups for social development ? Draw the figure of Issue Management Process
List out major social problems in your society. Who can be a social leader ? How women be encouraged in societal development ? Define Environmental Intelligence. In your opinion, what should be the meaning of Nepalese politics and how it can be made positive in the thought of society. What is the role of Mass media for social development ? List out major four social issues that must be addressed immediately. Make a figure of issue management process. Policy formulation is not a big deal, if not implemented, it will be a futile exercise. Explain. Crisis management. Issue management in short and its important.
How do you make your society the best society, give your ideas as being a social leader. What are the key public affair issues in Nepal ? Share your experience on addressing those issues. Mention the positive role of political parties for the societal development. Recently, you have visited Bharatpur Municipality, what did find over there, write in relation with public issues. Explain the structure of the state as per the Nepal’s Constitution 2015. In your opinion, what are the reasons that current governmental organizations fail to gain public image? “Politics is the exercise of power”, do you agree ? Explain. Assume that you have been elected as a Mayor ( i.e. Municipal Leader) of Bharatpur, share your initial actions for social development. Define Explain the criteria that political parties must incorporate while nominating the leader of the society. What are the preparation required for enacting complete provincial administration in Nepal? What are the benefits of federal system in Nepal ? List out the upcoming challenges of federal system. Explain the statement “Nepal remained underdeveloped country for a long time because it didn’t try to change its sociopolitical structure”. How do you define Public Affair Management ? List out the effective public affair management functions. How can mass media and interest group work together for social development ?
Course Objectives The purpose of this course is to help students understand the Nepalese political and social institutions and government system and analyze the challenges and implications of Nepal’s political, social, and economic development. This course is therefore characterized by an exploration of different ideas regarding the most appropriate means and ends of human participation in civic, social and political life. The course aims to enhance the student’s capacity to engage in active citizenship, informed by the insights and skills of social and political sciences. Being an active citizen implies that studentsare aware and responsible members of a community. They can belong to a community in which there are many communities – sometimes with divergent values and identities – but all sharing some common sense of responsibility and shared civic space.
Course Description This course will present an overview of the political and social developments in contemporary Nepal. The first part of the course consists of a chronological analysis of Nepalese politics and international relations. In the second part the focus will be on various facets of contemporary Nepalese society, which may include education, women and gender issues, nationalism, religion, the environment, the aging and shrinking population, popular culture, and ethnic and social minorities.
Course Outcomes Upon completion of the course, students should be able to: Understand the social systems within which people act, locally, nationally and more widely; Know important facts, concepts, and theories pertaining to Nepalese society, government and politics; Understand the importance of human rights and responsibilities for human dignity and for democratic modes of governance; Develop interest and capacity for active participation in the social and development activities; Discuss the gender, equality and empowerment issues; Explain the concept and practices of public affairs management and policy formulation process; Develop a sense of care for others and a respect for and a valuing of diversity in all areas of human life within the parameters of human rights principles.
Course Contents The following themes or topics are included: An overview of Nepalese political and social systems Political parties, interest groups, and mass media Institutions of Government of Nepal The organizational structure of government(s) in Nepal, including local, district, regional and national levels Public affairs management and policy formulation process Human rights and civil liberties Rural society and inclusiveness issues NGOs and development Citizenship practices, civil society, and the state Diversity, social partnership and participation in development Governance issues Gender, equality, empowerment issues Nepal in the world arena Contemporary political and social issues in Nepal
References Lewis, D. The Management of Non-Governmental Development Organizations: An Introduction, London: Lynne Rienner. Howell, J. & Pearce, J. Civil Society and Development: A Critical Exploration. London: Lynne Rienner. Drake, M. S. Political Sociology for a Globalizing World. Cambridge: Polity Press. Nash, K. Contemporary Political Sociology: Globalization, Politics, and Power, Oxford and Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishers, Inc. Abraham M. F. Modern Sociological Theory. New Delhi: Oxford University Press
Social Structure • ?? • Type of people • Employed, underemployed, unemployed • Academic, Non-academic • Business, Non-business • Farming, non-farming • Politics, non-politics • Active population/ inactive population Social Analysis based on above phenomenon
‘Society is inside man and man is inside society.’ Arthur Miller, The Shadow of the Gods (1958)
Society? • a shared, learned, symbolic system of values, beliefs and attitudes that shapes and influences perception and behavior -- an abstract "mental blueprint" or "mental code." • A shared perception of reality • Commonly known as • “Commonly known as” • Common sense • “They say” • “Everybody knows”
Understanding Politics: The word politics comes from ancient Greece. Its root is the word polis, which began to be used about 2,800 years ago to denote a self-governing city (city-state) • POLIS – city-state • POLITES – citizen • POLITIKOS – politician • POLITIKE – politics as the art of citizenship and government • POLITEIA – constitution, rules of politics • POLITEUMA – political community, all those residents who have full political rights
State Market Society
"Man is by nature a political animal." -- Aristotle • Politics is the exercise of power • Politics is the public allocation of values • Politics is the resolution of conflict • Politics is the competition among individuals, groups, or states pursuing their interests
Politics is often understood as: the art and science of GOVERNMENT, as affairs of STATE But: The state is rooted in society. The state maintains a particular social order. Politics outside the state is important. Interactions between state and society are at the core of politics. So, to understand politics, it has to be examined as part of the entire fabric of SOCIAL RELATIONS – cooperation and conflicts between individuals, groups, classes
Questions • How politics is considered as an art ? • How politics is considered as the science of government ?
POLITICS AS CONFLICT - as struggle for power. Politics is driven by selfish interests of individuals, groups, businesses, states. More natural for the thinking of those who would like to change the status quoin their favour.
Political conditions 2001: Royal massacre (On June 1, 2001 Crown Prince Dipendra was officially reported to have shot and killed his father, King Birendra; his mother, Queen Aishwarya) 2005–2007: Suspension of parliament and LoktantraAndolan: On 1 February 2005 King Gyanendra suspended the Parliament, appointed a government led by himself, and enforced martial law December 2007 to May 2008: Abolition of the monarchy On 23 December 2007, an agreement was made for the monarchy to be abolished and the country to become a federal republic with the Prime Minister becoming head of state.
The first elections after becoming a Republic: the Constituent Assembly (On June 1, 2001 Crown In May 2008 the elections for the Constituent Assembly saw the Communist Party of Nepal as the largest party in the Constituent Assembly.
New constitution 2015 • Local (Municipal and Village Council Election) • Provincial and Central Level Election Over Now, No political turmoil, expecting consistent government for 5 years.
Social Leader: Presentation • What are the positive roles of Political party for the societal development ? • To identify the social phenomenon, social structure, social issues, social problems, • Identify the significant of those issues, problems, ……. • Ranking the issues as per the priority base • Seek for the immediate action for the most significant issues., ,…. Encouraging stakeholders for the eff. Impltn. • Spread the positive message for social development to all the elements • Prepare the operational action plan • Prepare the Strategic plan for the societal development • Institutionalize the operational Plan • Review the operational plan, receive feedback from the society • Make necessary update on the previous plans…. • Transparency of economic, philosophical, ….. activities
List out the roles of : • Interest Groups • Mass Media For Social Development.
Assignment: • Write an essay "Societal Politics" (1000 words)
An overview of Nepalese political and social systems • last 240 years since Shah Dynasty started to rule over the country • Before the Shah Dynasty, there is no extant history of Nepal that authenticates different dynasties that ruled over the country. • PrithviNarayen Shah (1769 -1775) a king from Gorkha, a small principality from west of Nepal started to expand the country into a larger territory. • After conquering the Kathmandu valley on 25 September 1768, Nepal became a unified nation. The successors of PritiviNarayen Shah and latter Rana regime kept Nepali economy into a conventional (conservative) mode of production such as a feudalism ;fdGtjfb(a social system that existed in Europe during the Middle Ages in which people worked and fought for nobles who gave them protection and the use of land in return) until 1960.
An overview of Nepalese political and social systems • political elites more focused on individual benefits rather than change the country into a welfare state • several movements for socio-political emancipation (setting free) were either oppressed or ignored or not brought into media. • After 1960s when Nepal became an open country for the international community, ever since people often aspired more • dynamic political system which could lead the country a developed one • Key Note: Nepal remained underdeveloped country for a long • time because it didn’t try to change its sociopolitical structure during the 20th century when Western world was already enjoying mass consumption and modernization.
An overview of Nepalese political and social systems • In the 1980s and in the 1990s Nepal observed two major political movements however in 1996, Nepal communist Party Maoists formally incepted people’s war aiming for structural change in politics. • The major objective of the war was to setup the country into a republic state, federal government, ethnic autonomy, revolutionary take off to economic prosperity. • Many more ups and down in central polity, the war has concluded and then interim constitution with federal democracy has been provisioned on the latest • Meanwhile, it was experienced that development can not be carried out without political stability and peace
An overview of Nepalese political and social systems • Social Aspect of Nepal • The most unique problem with Nepal is the caste system. • The tradition of caste system has long been practiced around 400 years back. Besides this, there are many tribal communities with various languages which show that Nepal is a country with ethnic diversities. • Within the diversity of the social characteristics, Nepal always underwent unequal social practice. • The reason behind it was hierarchies of cultural power.
An overview of Nepalese political and social systems • Social Aspect of Nepal • from this cultural aspect, there is a big gap division between • rich and poor, • urban and rural and • centre to remote. • A deep rooted caste system in Nepali society has contributed to social discrimination and class division which in fact has also a significant effect in generating the economic and social enhancement opportunities. • many castes have been classified and socially kept in hierarchies show extreme gap between poor and rich and is always prone to dire conflict. • there is still a majority of Brahman and Chhetris who have access to policy making level compare to other ethnic groups.
An overview of Nepalese political and social systems • Social Aspect of Nepal • modern media that significantly contributed to reduce such socially constructed hierarchies in Nepali society
Institutions of Government of Nepal • Government of Nepal, Office of the President & V. President • Commission for the Investigation of Abuse of Authority (CIAA) • Election Commission • Auditor General Office • Public Service Commission • Supreme Court • National Human Rights Commission
Institutions of Government of Nepal • Office of the Prime Minister and Council of Ministers • Ministry of Finance • Financial Comptroller General Office • Department of Custom • Inland Revenue Department • Department of Revenue Investigation • Department of Revenue • Ministry of Industry • Department of Industry • Department of Mines and Geology • Department of Cottage and Small Industries • Office of the Company Registrar • Nepal Bureau of Standards & Metrology
Institutions of Government of Nepal • Ministry of Law, Justice Constitution Assembly Affairs • Nepal Law Commission • Law service training centre • Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives • Department of Agriculture • Department of Livestock Services • Department of Co-Operatives • Department of Food Technology and Quality Control • Ministry of Home Affairs • Department of Immigration • Police Headquarter • Head Office of Armed Force • National Police Academy
Institutions of Government of Nepal • Ministry of Water Resources • Irrigration Department • Ministry of Energy • Electricity Development Department • Department of Water Induced Disaster Prevention • Ministry of Foreign Affairs • Ministry of Tourism and Civil Aviation • Tourism Board, Nepal • Civil Aviation Authority of Nepal • Ministry of Land, Reform and Management • Ministry of Physical Planning and Works • Ministry of Women, Children and Social Welfare • Ministry of Education • Ministry of Defense
Institutions of Government of Nepal • Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation • Department of National Parks and Wild Life Conservation • Ministry of Industry Commerce and Supplies • Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction • Ministry of Education • Ministry of Labor and Transport Management • Ministry of General Administration • Ministry of Information and Communication • Department of Archaeology • Ministry of Local Development • Ministry of Health and Population • National Planning Commission • Central Bureau of Statistics
56. Structure of the State (LQ) (1) The Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal shall have three main levels of structure: federal, provincial and local. (2) The State powers of Nepal shall be used by the federal, provincial and the local level in accordance with this constitution. (3) There shall be the provinces with the districts listed in Schedule-4 that prevail at the commencement of this Constitution in Nepal. (4) Under the local level, there shall be Village council, Municipal and District Assembly. The number of wards in a Village council and Municipal Council shall be as provided for in a federal law. (5) Special, protected and autonomous regions may be created for socio-cultural protection and development according to federal law. (6) The Federation, provinces and local levels shall protect Nepal's independence, sovereignty, territorial integrity, autonomy, national interests, overall development, multi-party competitive democratic republic and federal system of governance, human rights and fundamental rights, rule of law, separation of powers and check and balance, equitable society based on plurality and equality, and inclusive representation and identity.
Long Question: 1. What are the preparation required for enacting complete provincial administration in Nepal?2. What are the benefits of federal system in Nepal ? List out the upcoming challenges of federal system.
Provisions of fundamental rights: fundamental rights embracing all political and socio-economic lives of citizens are provisioned in the constitution. All these will require various institutional arrangements in three branches of the state affairs, which should range from legal provision (Article 47) to policy, organizational and resource provisions. Directive principles and state policies: state policies covering all important aspects of state affairs, including political and governance systems, besides setting well-elaborated directive principles Transformation from unitary to federal system: three tiers of the government at centre, province and local levels (municipal and village), legislative arrangements are likely to be very complex. Such arrangements will have to be made considering the lists of powers of three tiers of government Defining, establishing and practicing horizontal and vertical coordination mechanism: With establishment of different tiers of the government, there is a need to allocate authorities, responsibilities and resources across different levels of government, with institutional mechanisms for interrelationship between Federal, Provincial and Local Levels and National Natural Resources and Finance Commission.
Changes in size and composition of public organizations and employees: There is need for creating many new organizations simultaneously with re-arrangements of the existing ones at different levels of government in the process of administrative federalization. Number of civil services: Different types of services are provisioned for federal, provincial and local level governments (Article 285)Even at central level, unlike in the unitary civil service, different services to be labeled as "federal civil service" and “other federal government services" will need to be created and managed for administrative federalization. Provision for constitutional bodies: More than a dozen constitutional bodies are provisioned to look after different issues like accountability and oversight, election, inclusion and human rights
Intergovernmental transfer: Provisions are made for both exclusive and concurrent revenue assignments at all three tiers of government. The central government will have to transfer many of powers and resources to the sub-national governments and likewise many ministries are likely to be reorganized with the potential reduction in their existing number. Drafting of laws: Since both provincial and local governments, besides federal one, also will be exercising legislative powers as the sub-national governments, many of the existing laws shall have to be amended while more than one hundred new laws shall have to be legislated by the federal government to meet the constitutional requirements Services and staffing during transition: The government is to make necessary provisions, as part of transition management, to deliver services at provincial and local levels without disrupting what it has been doing now. For this, it will have to adjust public servants, who are in government service at the time of promulgation of the new constitution, to the federal, province and local levels in accordance with the law
Public Affair Management Q. What are the key public affair issues in Nepal ? Share your experience on addressing those issues. Public affairs :- building and development of relations between an organization and politicians, governments and other decision-makers. The industry has developed over recent years and is normally considered a branch or sub-discipline of public relations (PR). Public affairs work combines government relations, media communications, issue management, corporate and social responsibility and information dissemination
An effective public affairs function must: • Manage public affairs as an ongoing, year-round process. • Cultivate and harvest the capability to build, develop, and maintain enduring stakeholder relationships. • Influence stakeholders using refined information. • Recognize the importance of managing the grass roots. • Communicate in an integrated manner. • Continuously align its values and strategy with public’s interests. • Improve its external relations using the accepted facts of contemporary management practice.
Issue management www.postrajpokharel.wordpress.com A structured and systematic process to aid organizations in identifying, monitoring, and selecting public issues that warrant organizational action. • Environmental intelligence The acquisition of information gained from analyzing the multiple environments affecting organizations. • Customer • Competitor • Economic • Technological • Social • Political • Legal • Geophysical
The issue management process: Policy formulation is not a big deal, if not implemented, it will be a futile exercise. In the light of this statement, Explain the issue management process and its importance. Issues Identification Issues Analysis Research Performance evaluation Judgment and priority setting Results Policy Options Program Design Implementation Policy and strategy selection