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Modern Protist Diversity

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  1. Modern Protist Diversity

  2. Plant Clades

  3. Plant Clades Phylum/Division Bryophyta Phylum/Division Pterophyta Phylum/Division Anthophyta Phylum/Division Coniferophyta

  4. The ancestor of all plants was a green alga • Green algae have plant-like chloroplasts, plant-like cell walls, and a plant-like energy storage molecule (starch)… etc. • The ancestor of plants probably was a green alga that lived whole or partially in very shallow water, perhaps susceptible to periodic drying up • Those algae that could continue to metabolize despite not being completely covered with water presumably possessed a selective advantage—including shading those algae restricted to water • The first roots were stems (stipes) that physically connected out-of-water portions of algae with still-in-water portions • Water diffused over short stems to keep above-water, actively photosynthesizing tissues from desiccating From Algae to Plants

  5. Chara Gametangia Antheridium Oogonium

  6. Algae: • Get minerals and water from surrounding water • Have their bodies supported by surrounding water • Their sperm and spores swim through the water Plants: • Get their Minerals and Water from soil • Soil is subject to desiccation • Soil also is opaque to sunlight • Do not have their weight supported by surrounding water • Do not have, or have less water for sperm and spores to swim through To survive on land, plant ancestors had to address these challenges The Challenges of Land

  7. Evolution of First Plant

  8. Waxy cuticles (water proofing) Stomata (holes in above) Dominant sporophyte Vascular tissue Woody tissue Pollen (non-motile sperm carrier; also male gametophyte) Seeds (embryo carrier) Flowers Fruit Plant Innovations

  9. Timing of Innovations

  10. Plant Innovations Waxy cuticles Stomata Dominant sporophyte Vascular tissue Woody tissue Pollen Seeds Flowers Fruit

  11. Waxy Cuticle

  12. Flaccid / Wilted

  13. Plant Innovations Waxy cuticles Stomata Dominant sporophyte Vascular tissue Woody tissue Pollen Seeds Flowers Fruit

  14. Gas Exchange

  15. Stomata

  16. Guard Cells no Air in, no Water out Air in, Water out

  17. Plant Innovations Waxy cuticles Stomata Dominant sporophyte Vascular tissue Woody tissue Pollen Seeds Flowers Fruit

  18. vasculature Dominant Sporophyte

  19. Plant Innovations Waxy cuticles Stomata Dominant sporophyte Vascular tissue Woody tissue Pollen Seeds Flowers Fruit

  20. 90% of water passed up through Xylem is transpired out of plant through stomata Vasculature (etc.) Photosynthate moves down from leaves, Minerals and Water move up from roots

  21. Plant Innovations Waxy cuticles Stomata Dominant sporophyte Vascular tissue Woody tissue Pollen Seeds Flowers Fruit

  22. Cellulose  Cell Walls

  23. Lignin  Woody Tissue

  24. “White rot fungi (such as this species) primarily digest lignin leaving the whitish strands of cellulose behind… brown rot fungi digest cellulose and leave the crumbling brown lignin behind.” Fungi  Aerobic Decay

  25. Coal  Anaerobic Decay

  26. Plant Innovations Waxy cuticles Stomata Dominant sporophyte Vascular tissue Woody tissue Pollen Seeds Flowers Fruit Alternation of Generations

  27. Diploid phase Syngamy Meiosis Gametes Spores Haploid phase Alternation of Generations

  28. Alternation of Generations

  29. Syngamy Isogametes Anisogametes Oogamy

  30. Chara – Only Zygote is Diploid Zygote Gametangia Antheridium Oogonium

  31. Development of the sporophyte prior to meiosis Diploid parent (Sporophyte) Meiosis (delayed) Diploid zygote Haploid Spores Sperm (gamete) Egg ( gamete) Haploid parent (Gametophyte) Delaying Meiosis

  32. Fruit and Seeds Pericarp the fruit wall (derived from the ovary of the pistil) which is composed of the exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp (the three layers are not always recognizable, eg. dry fruit)

  33. Parts of a fruit • Peach • Endocarp the innermost layer of the pericarp (often hard, stony or papery)  • Mesocarpthe middle layer of the pericarp (often fleshy) • Exocarp   the outermost layer of the pericarp (often like a skin or peel).

  34. Parts of a fruit • Rind--Lemon • tough, leathery covering on manyfruits either composed of the exocarp (melon) or the exocarp and mesocarp (orange).

  35. Parts of a fruit • Apple • accessory tissue • fruit parts not directly derived from the ovary, for example, receptacle tissue of pomes (apple) and the husks of nuts (acorn, pecan).

  36. Simple Fruit legume or pod • derived from a single flower with a single ovary (pistil). • dry dehiscent fruit--pericarp splits open at maturity.legume  or  pod contains one locule that splits along two sutures. (bean, pea, peanut, mimosa)

  37. follicle • contains one locule that splits along one or more suture. (larkspur, sweet gum,  magnolia) Follicle--Sweet Gum and Magnolia

  38. capsule • contains three or more locules that split along three or more sutures. (okra, golden rain tree, tallow tree) Okra

  39. Dry indehiscent fruit- • pericarp dries, but does not split open at maturity. • Samara one or two seeded with pericarp  flattened into wings.  (maple, ash) Ash

  40. Caryopsis  or  grain • one seeded fruit with seed fused to the pericarp. (wheat, corn, grain)

  41. Achene • one seeded fruit with seed free from pericarp. Sunflower

  42. Nut • similiar to an achene, but one seeded by abortion and partially (acorn) or entirely  enclosed by a husk. (pecan, walnut) Pecan and Oak

  43. Fleshy fruit • pericarp does not dry at maturity • Berry entire pericarp is fleshy. (grape, tomato) Tomato

  44. Pepo • a type of berry, with the exocarp as a hard rind. (melon, cucumbers, squash) Squash

  45. Hesperidium • a type of berry, with the exocarp and mesocarp as a hard rind and the endocarp composed of juice vesicles. (citrus-orange, lemon, lime) Lemon

  46. Drupe  or  stone • a single-seeded fruit with a skin-like exocarp (fuzzy or smooth) fleshy mesocarp and a hard stony endocarp. (peach, cherry, plum, coconut) Peach

  47. Pome • a paper-like pericarp containing a thickened, fleshy receptacle or hypanthium. (apple, pear, pomengranate)

  48. Dry and fleshy fruits