perceiving evaluating other people l.
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Perceiving & evaluating other people PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Perceiving & evaluating other people

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 19

Perceiving & evaluating other people - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

  • Uploaded on

Perceiving & evaluating other people Why do we evaluate others? all of us are naïve psychologists Are we accurate? often however, our judgments can suffer from a number of biases analogy: bias/ perceptual illusion; gives cue to normal processing Attributions from behavior Attribution

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Perceiving & evaluating other people' - omer

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
perceiving evaluating other people
Perceiving & evaluating other people
  • Why do we evaluate others?
    • all of us are naïve psychologists
  • Are we accurate?
    • often
    • however, our judgments can suffer from a number of biases
      • analogy: bias/ perceptual illusion; gives cue to normal processing
attributions from behavior
Attributions from behavior
  • Attribution
    • a claim about the cause of someone’s behavior
    • Heider
      • Is behavior due to unique personal trait or is it a normal human behavior given the situation?
person vs situation attributions
Person vs. Situation Attributions
  • Kelley’s 3 questions
    • does this person regularly behave this way in this situation?
    • do others regularly behave this way in this situation?
    • does this person behave this way in many other situations?
kelley s attributional logic

(1) Does Susan regularly get angry in traffic jams?

(2) Do many other people get angry in traffic jams?

(3) Does Susan get angry in many other situations?







No personality or situational attribution

Situational attribution: traffic jams make people mad

Personality attribution, general

Personality attribution, particular

Kelley’s Attributional Logic
person bias in attributions
Person bias in attributions
  • People give too much weight to personality and not enough to situational variables
  • Conditions promoting person bias
    • task has goal of assessment of personality
    • observer is cognitively loaded (busy with other task)
  • Conditions promoting a situation bias
    • when goal is to judge the situation
two stage model of attributions
Two-stage Model of Attributions
  • First stage is rapid & automatic
    • bias according to goal (person/situation)
  • Second stage is slower & controlled
    • won’t occur if cognitively loaded
    • we correct our automatic attribution
two stage model of attributions7

Automatic Attribution

Controlled Attribution

Observer’s goal

Revision: could be a funny show

Person: Joe laughs easily

What kind of person is Joe?

Situation: the TV show is funny

Revision: maybe Joe laughs easily

How funny is the TV comedy?

Two-stage Model of Attributions

Book example: Joe laughs hysterically while watching a TV comedy. What can we conclude?

cross cultural differences








United States


8 11 15 Adult

Cross-cultural differences
  • Western culture
    • people are in charge of own destinies
    • more attributions to personality
  • Some Eastern cultures
    • fate in charge of destiny
    • more attributions to situation

Attributions to internal


Age (years)

does the trait describe 1 you 2 a close friend 3 a professor
Does the trait describe: 1. You? 2. A close friend? 3. A professor
  • Outgoing
  • calm
  • agreeable
  • shrewd
  • self-disciplined
  • tidy


YES NO Depends on


actor observer discrepancy
Actor-Observer Discrepancy
  • Others’ behavior: Person bias
  • Own behavior: Situation bias
  • Why?
    • hypothesis 1: Knowledge across situations
    • hypothesis 2: visual orientation
prior information effects
Prior Information Effects
  • Mental representations of people (schemas) can effect our interpretation of them
    • Kelley’s study
      • guest speaker
      • students: half got written bio saying speaker was “very warm”, half got bio saying speaker was “rather cold”
      • “very warm” group rated guest more positively than “rather cold” group
effects of personal appearance
Effects of Personal Appearance
  • The attractiveness bias
    • physically attractive people are rated higher on intelligence, competence, sociability, morality
    • studies
      • teachers rate attractive children as smarter, and higher achieving
      • adults attribute cause of unattractive child’s misbehavior to personality, attractive child’s to situation
      • judges give longer prison sentences to unattractive people
  • What is a stereotype?
    • schemas about a group of people
    • a belief held by members of one group about members of another group
    • how can we study stereotypes?
      • early studies just asked people
      • today’s society is sensitized to harmful effects of stereotyping
      • need different ways of studying
studying stereotypes
Studying stereotypes
  • 3 levels of stereotypes
    • public
      • what we say to others about a group
    • private
      • what we consciously think about a group, but don’t say to others
    • implicit
      • unconscious mental associations guiding our judgments and actions without our conscious awareness
implicit stereotypes
Implicit Stereotypes
  • Use of priming: subject doesn’t know stereotype is being activated, can’t work to suppress it
    • Bargh study
      • word lists, some include e.g. “gray,” “Bingo,” “Florida”
      • observed subjects walking to elevators
    • studies on racial stereoptypes
implicit stereotypes16
Implicit Stereotypes
  • Devine’s automaticity theory
    • racial stereotypes are so prevalent in our culture that we all hold them
    • stereotypes are automatically activated
    • we have to actively resist them if we don’t wish to act in a prejudiced way.
    • Overcoming prejudice is possible, but takes work
self fulfilling prophecies
Self-fulfilling Prophecies
  • Beliefs & expectations create reality by influencing our behavior & others’
  • Pygmalion effect (liberal arts pop quiz: Who was Pygmalion?)
    • person A believes that person B has a particular characteristic
    • person B may begin to behave in accordance with that characteristic
studies of the self fulfilling prophecy
Studies of the Self-fulfilling Prophecy
  • Rosenthal & Fode
    • gave 2 groups of students randomly selected rats
    • told Group 1 they had “super genius” rats
    • told Group 2 they had “super moron” rats
    • all students told to train rats to run mazes
    • “genius” rat group ended up doing better than the “moron” rat group
studies of the self fulfilling prophecy19
Studies of the Self-fulfilling Prophecy
  • Rosenthal & Jacobson
    • went to a school and did IQ tests with kids
    • told teachers test was a “spurters” test
    • randomly selected several kids and told the teacher they were spurters
    • did another IQ test at end of year
    • “spurters” showed significant improvements in their IQ scores
    • reason: teacher’s expectations of them