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LCD Monitors How they work John Orth and Adam Powell LCD (Liquid Crystal Displays) Polarized Filters LCD monitors use polarized filters to vary the intensity of light emitted from a pixel. Light polarized parallel to the filter is transmitted. Light polarized at an angle is blocked.

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lcd monitors

LCD Monitors

How they work

John Orth and Adam Powell

polarized filters
Polarized Filters
  • LCD monitors use polarized filters to vary the intensity of light emitted from a pixel.
  • Light polarized parallel to the filter is transmitted.
  • Light polarized at an angle is blocked.
  • Question – How does anything more than a tiny fraction of perfectly aligned light get transmitted?
answer quantum mechanics
Answer - Quantum Mechanics
  • In the quantum world everything is governed by probability.
  • There is often a significant probability that seemingly impossible events will occur.
  • Example: In classical physics a frog that can only jump one foot cannot get out of a two foot deep well.
slide5
In a quantum world, a frog that can only jump one foot has a finite probability of getting out of a two foot deep well. The process is called quantum tunneling.
  • The transmission of light through a polarized filter is analogous to quantum tunneling.
slide6
Even if polarized light is not perfectly aligned with the filter, there is still a non zero probability it will be transmitted.
  • This probability function is given by cos Φ.
  • It is impossible to tell whether a single photon will be transmitted or not

(unless Φ = 0 or 90). We only know the probability.

(demo)

slide7
There are two basic LCD types that operate on the principle just demonstrated.
  • IPS (In Plane Switching).
  • MVA (Multi Domain Vertical

Alignment.)

  • In the off state liquid crystal is perpendicular to the polarized filter and the pixel is black.
  • Applying voltage aligns the liquid crystal closer to parallel and light transmits.

(demo)

slide8
In quantum mechanics, performing a measurement can cause a change of state in the thing being measured. Example, alter the polarization of a photon.
  • TN (Twisted nematic) LCD monitors operate on the principle just demonstrated.
  • A spiral of liquid crystals is sandwiched between horizontal and vertical polarized filters.
  • In the off state the liquid crystals “twist” the light polarization from vertical to horizontal. Pixel is white.
  • Applying voltage disrupts the spiral and the pixel is black.
flcd flcos
FLCD/FLCOS
  • Bistable Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Displays
  • Bistable Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal On Silicon
  • Proposed in 1992 by Thorn EMI
  • Keeps a static state without an electric charge
  • Color’s are created using a “digital greyscale” method
slide14
Sources
  • http://www.tomshardware.com/reviews/comparison-15,409-9.html
  • http://www.sidchapters.org/sandiego/ColorSeminar-Marcu.pdf
  • http://www.mtnmath.com/whatrh/node78.html
  • http://allaboutfrogs.org/gallery/animations/anim9.html
  • http://www.optrex.com/pdf/MEM-fall04_artcl.pdf
  • http://www.users.csbsju.edu/~frioux/q-intro/polar-append.pdf
  • http://www.vptech.com
  • http://www.displaytech.com
  • http://www.projectorcentral.com/lcos.htm