Introduction to the Civil War1861-1865 McIntyre The regimental colors of the 19th Massachusetts Infantry Regiment were damaged in battle during the American Civil War.
The Civil War • Who was involved? #1 The Confederate States of America
The Civil War • Who was involved? #2 The Union (Free States & Territories)
The Civil War • Who was involved? #3 The Border States
The Civil War • Why were the Border States so important? “I hope to have God on my side but I have to have Kentucky” -- Abraham Lincoln • Important geographically • Why were the Border States so unusual? • Slave states that stayed with the Union
The Civil War • How did they fight? • Total War - organisation of all the resources (people and products) of a country towards the war effort • The resources of enemy civilians are fair targets in total war (ex. Farms, food, etc)
Thinking Question: • (Don’t write! Just think!) • Are governments ever justified in targeting civilians (non-soldiers) in wartime?
Advantages and Disadvantages: • North • Population: 22 million • 4 million men of combat age • South • Population: 9 million • 1.2 million men of fighting age • 3.5 million slaves North has the advantage in population
Advantages and Disadvantages: • North • Economy:100,000 Factories • 70,000 miles of Railroad • $190,000 in bank deposits • South • Economy: 20,000 factories • 9,000 miles of Railroad • $50,000 in bank deposits North has the advantage in industrial power
Advantages and Disadvantages: • North • Armed Forces:mostly drafted soldiers with overly cautious officers • More soldiers • African Americans - 10% of Union forces • Strong navy • South • Armed Forces: better trained soldiers & better leadership • No real navy North has the advantage in # of soldiers, but South in the quality of soldiers & generals
Advantages and Disadvantages: • North • Government - Strong well-established government • South • Government - Weak government, most power given to states North has a stronger government, better able to direct resources (people & products) towards the war
Advantages and Disadvantages: • North • Motivation: Preserve the union • Later - free the slaves • South • Motivation: Preserve way of life Who has the advantage in motivation? You decide.
Goals: • North • Anaconda Plan • 1. Blockade the South • 2. Divide - Split the Confederacy by gianing control of the Mississippi River • 3. Conquer - remaining parts • South • 1. Defend existing territory • 2. Gain recognition of Confederacy as independent nation Whose goals would be easier to reach?
Leaders: • Abraham Lincoln: “A House divided against itself cannot stand” -- A. Lincoln • Little political experience (served 1 term in the House of Representatives) • Strong reputation for honesty, temperance, jokes and storytelling
Leaders: • Jefferson Davies: “All we ask is to be left alone” -- J. Davies • West Point graduate, Colonel in Mexican-American war, Secretary of war, & Senator from Miss. • Not a popular president, especially with big fans of state’s rights Who has the advantage in leadership?
Northern Commanders George G. Meade Joseph Hooker George McClellan Irwin McDowell A. E. Burnside
Northern Commanders Ulysses S. Grant -- “When in doubt, fight” U.S. Grant • Son of an Ohio tailor & drunken failure until the Civil War • Reputation for boldness, resourcefulness, &persistance
Southern Commander Robert E. Lee “It is a good thing war is so terrible; else we should grow too fond of it” -- R.E. Lee • Brilliant southern gentleman from one of country’s oldest families • Offered command of Union armies • Family plantation occupied early in the war and turned into Arlington National Cemetary Who has the advantage in Commanders?
Thinking Questions: • (Don’t write: Just think!) • Is it more important to have strong generals or strong civilian leadership in a war?
So how did it begin? • Fort Sumter: Where? • Fort Sumter lies in the harbor of Charleston, S.C.
So how did it begin? • Fort Sumter: Why? • When Lincoln enters office, fort is running out of food What? • Lincoln can either defend the fort and risk war or abandon it and look weak in the eyes of the South
So how did it begin? • Fort Sumter: So... • Lincoln sends unarmed vessel with food, giving the governor of S.C. plenty of warning • S.C. attacks anyway and Lincoln asks for Northern volunteers • This attack on the Union probably helps him keep many of the border states