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BIOGEOGRAPHY. attempts to explain why species and higher taxa are distributed as they are, and why the diversity and taxonomic composition of the biota vary from one region to another. INTEGRATION OF SEVERAL DISCIPLINES. Geology. INTEGRATION OF SEVERAL DISCIPLINES. Geology. Triassic.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

BIOGEOGRAPHY

attempts to explain why species and higher taxa are

distributed as they are, and why the diversity and taxonomic

composition of the biota vary from one region to another.

slide3

INTEGRATION OF SEVERAL DISCIPLINES

Geology

Triassic

Cretaceous

Oligocene

Paleocene

slide5

INTEGRATION OF SEVERAL DISCIPLINES

Geology

Paleontology

Phylogenetics

slide6

INTEGRATION OF SEVERAL DISCIPLINES

Geology

Paleontology

Phylogenetics

Gila Monster (Heloderma)

Lanthanotus thought to be

related to Gila monsters (weird

distribution). It is really

related to Monitor lizards (makes

sense for biogeography).

Monitor Lizard (Varanidae)

slide7

INTEGRATION OF SEVERAL DISCIPLINES

Geology

Paleontology

Phylogenetics

Ecology

slide8

AN EXAMPLE OF BIOGEOGRAPHIC AREAS

Philip Sclater (1829-1913)

Wallace’s

Line

slide11

CHARLES R. DARWIN

“Neither the similarity or dissimilarity

of the inhabitants of various regions can

be wholly accounted for by climatic

and other physical conditions.”

slide12

CHARLES R. DARWIN

“Barriers of any kind…are related in a close

and important manner to the differences

between the productions [organisms] of

various regions”

slide13

FACTORS AFFECTING GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS

(what might increase a species’ range?)

BIOTIC

Adaptation to new conditions

Dispersal through continuous habitat

“Jump Dispersal” across a major barrier (sea;

mountain, etc.)

slide14

FACTORS AFFECTING GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTIONS

(what might increase a species’ range?)

ABIOTIC

Climatic Regime change

Eustatic Events (change in sea level-provides bridges)

Tectonic Events (plate movements; mountains, etc.)

slide15

DISPERSAL VS. VICARIANCE HYPOTHESESES

Dispersal Hypothesis:

Taxon originated in one area

and dispersed to the other

Vicariance Hypothesis:

Areas were formerly contiguous,

and were occupied by the ancestor.

Species differentiated after barrier

arose.

slide16

MARSUPIAL EXAMPLE

AREA CLADOGRAMS:

slide17

CONGRUENT BIOGEOGRAPHIES

(Comparative Phylogeography)

slide21

ECOLOGY (ESSENTIAL)

A species cannot survive outside of its physiological

tolerance range; its biogeography cannot contradict its

ecology.

slide22

ECOLOGY (ESSENTIAL)

A species cannot survive outside of its physiological

tolerance range; its biogeography cannot contradict its

ecology.

Are Ecological and Historical Factors Alternatives?

slide23

DETERMINING IF ECOLOGY OR HISTORY IS

MORE IMPORTANT

end of distribution

end of distribution

A

A

Same environment

Different environment

slide24

DETERMINING IF ECOLOGY OR HISTORY IS

MORE IMPORTANT

Different (A could not

occur)

Same environment (A could occur)

end of distribution

end of distribution

A

A

Same environment

Different environment

slide25

DETERMINING IF ECOLOGY OR HISTORY IS

MORE IMPORTANT

History (Barrier existed)

Ecology

end of distribution

end of distribution

A

A

Same environment

Different environment

slide26

Taricha torosa

Mitochondrial Lineages

slide27

BIOCLIMATIC MODELING

(unique environmental space: selection?)

slide28

SYTEMATISTS AND ECOLOGISTS ASK

DIFFERENT QUESTIONS

Systematists look first to evolutionary history

Ecologists look first to physiological tolerances and

species interactions

slide29

SYTEMATISTS AND ECOLOGISTS ASK

DIFFERENT QUESTIONS

Systematists look first to evolutionary history

Ecologists look first to physiological tolerances and

species interactions

slide30

MacArthur and Wilson 1967

Theory of Island Biogeography

“Why do islands have fewer species than same area on

continent?”

slide31

MacArthur and Wilson 1967

Theory of Island Biogeography

“Why do islands have fewer species than same area on

continent?”

Small islands have higher extinction rates.

Farther islands have lower probability of immigration.

Function of SIZE of island and DISTANCE from mainland

slide32

CHECKERBOARD DISTRIBUTIONS: not all

islands have the predicted “equilibrium” number of species

(White-eyes in New Guinea)

Interspecific Competition (ecology) also influences

particular species distributions.

slide33

Placentals Marsupials

CONVERGENT

EVOLUTION

(form of homoplasy)

Are the same niches

predictably occupied

by phylogenetically

independent groups

of organisms?