Hoshin Planning (Kanri) The Application of a TQM/QI Model to a College or University Environment A Brief Illustration
Origins • Although the concept Hoshin Planning is not familiar to many educators, the process, developed by the Japanese corporate world in support of quality improvement initiatives, is well-understood and often utilized • By Edwards Deming Prize candidates in Japan • By Malcolm Baldrige Award candidates in the United States and • By other for-profit and not-for-profit organizations seeking to maximize organizational assessment, planning, improvement, and effectiveness
Hoshin Planning Works(http://www.tqu.com/hoshin.html) • According to Total Quality Engineering, a for-profit consulting firm specializing in organizational effectiveness, • Most Malcolm Baldrige Award winners incorporate the Hoshin concept into their planning initiatives, and • Many progressive US companies (e.g., Hewlett-Packard and Xerox) make Hoshin Planning the centerpiece of their strategic planning process.
The Term Hoshin Planning (Kanri) • The word Hoshin results from the combination of two Japanese words: • Ho means course or direction • Shin means needle • Hoshin means direction needle (or compass)
The Term Hoshin Planning (Kanri) • The word Kanri results from the combination of two Japanese words • Kan means control • Ri means reason or logic • The process of Hoshin Kanri can be understood as an effort to manage or control change in order to facilitate organizational effectiveness
Deming Transformed • In his efforts to improve Japanese production, Edwards Deming introduced a QI technique that incorporates four continuous processes known as PDCA • Plan • Do • Check • Act
Deming Transformed (cont.) • The term Hoshin Planning (Kanri) describes the application of the PDCA production cycle to the management process. • As the Institutional Effectiveness Model published in the SACS/COC Institutional Effectiveness Manual (1992, page 6) illustrates, the PDCA process and the SACS/COC institutional effectiveness model are compatible processes.
Within the Corporate Environment, Hoshin Planning Supports • Routine Operations, e.g. • Correcting production defaults • Achieving on-time delivery • Inventory control • Production efficiency • Strategic Planning
Within the College Environment, Hoshin Planning can • Inform the strategic planning process • Inform planning within the separate colleges, schools, divisions, and units of the institution • Support programmatic improvements • Facilitate the winnowing of the institution’s Quality Enhancement Plan • Significantly, one instrument can do all of these things simultaneously
HOSHIN PLANNING[OTHER BENEFITS] • Gives all, or nearly all, interested parties a voice in the planning process • Allows planners to identify and address political differences • Functions, de facto, as an assessment of existing plans • By-product: Generates a number of good ideas that can be implemented routinely though the separate offices and units of the institution
FORMAL AND INFORMAL ASSESSMENT • Formal assessment is essential, but often some of the most significant assessment occurs as groups (trustees, administrators, faculty, staff, students) work, socialize, and play • Hoshin Planning gives voice to both formal and informal assessment inthe creation of a comprehensive instrument that defines and ranks possible institutional or programmatic improvements
HOSHIN PLANNING COMMENCES WITH A NARROW/SINGULAR FOCUS • If you could do just one thing to improve student learning at College X, what would your do? • If you could do just one thing to improve the learning environment at College X, what would your do? • If you could do just one thing to create brand recognition for College X, what would your do? • If you could do just one thing to improve campus civility at College X, what would you do? • If you could do just one thing to solve problem Z, at College X, what would you do?
STEPS IN HOSHIN PLANNING[CORPORATE MODEL] • DEFINE THE FOCUS—WHAT DO YOU WANT TO IMPROVE? • ENVISION POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS BY BRAINSTORMING • RANK THE SUGGESTIONS • IMPLEMENT THE TOP SUGGESTIONS • 1 – 3 • 1 – 5 • 1 – 10 • ASSESS THE RESULTS • REPEAT THE PROCESS UNTIL QUALITY IS MAXIMIZED
HOSHIN PLANNING[college or university environment] • The corporate model could work in the educational environment if the purpose of the Hoshin Planning exercise were narrowly defined, e.g. • If you could do just one thing to improve campus civility, what would you do? • If you could do just one thing to improve the freshman-year experience, what would you do? • If you could do just one thing to improve the senior-year experience, what would you do?
Hoshin Planning • At Louisburg College, however, we had a larger goal • To inform the planning process leading to the development of a triennial edition of the Louisburg College Strategic Plan—a plan with multiple strategic directions • Therefore, the question at LC was intentionally broad
THE QUESTION FOR LC IF YOU COULD DO JUST ONE THING TO IMPROVE STUDENT LEARNING AND/OR THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT AT LOUISBURG COLLEGE, WHAT WOULD YOU DO?
THINKING STRATEGICALLY Although the question had a narrow focus, it was intentionally designed to invite suggested improvements related to each of the separate strategic directions of Louisburg College.
The Strategic Directions of LC TO CONTINUOUSLY • improve financial strength • improve campus facilities • manage enrollment • create a purposeful academic community • develop a regionally-recognized Learning Disability program • maintain a civil and supportive learning environment • improve information technologies • improve communications, both internal and external • strengthen the relationship with the congregations of The United Methodist Church
HOSHIN PLANNING[an instrument of assessment] • Although the purpose of Hoshin Planning was to envision the 2007 – 2009 edition of the LC Strategic Plan, the process functioned, de facto, as an assessment of the existing strategic directions of Louisburg College.
HOSHIN PLANNING[as an instrument of assessing the strategic directions of Louisburg College] EXAMPLE: Although the academic purposes of Louisburg College were assumed, the existing strategic directions of Louisburg College did not include a strategic direction that focused intentionally on the academic purposes of Louisburg College.
HOSHIN PLANNING[an instrument of assessment] • Yet, 40 (30.76%) of the 130 suggestions resulting from the 2005 - 2006 Hoshin Planning process focused, directly or indirectly, on the creation of a purposeful academic community, with the result that • the 2007 – 2009 edition of the LC Strategic Plan includes a new strategic direction—to continuously create a purposeful academic community [as defined in Campus Life: In Search of Community—a report of the Carnegie Foundation for The Advancement of Teaching]
HOSHIN PLANNING[as assessment of the existing strategic plan] • Nine (7%) of the 130 suggestions resulting from the 2005 – 2006 Hoshin Planning process focused upon the creation of a civil learning environment, with the result that • In the 2007 – 2009 edition of the LC Strategic Plan, the strategic direction that previously read to continuously create a supportive learning environmenthas been revised to read to continuously create a civil and supportive learning environment
HOSHIN PLANNING[as assessment of existing strategic directions] • During the 90s, Louisburg College developed one of the first comprehensive programs in the Southeast for high potential students with diagnosed learning disabilities/differences • The 2005-2006 Hoshin Planning Process and subsequent discussions indicated that • Faculty and trustees had different expectations for this program • The Learning Partners Program would benefit from a more intentional focus
LEARNING PARTNERS[and The Academy] • As a result of subsequent assessment and planning: • the Board of Trustees has created a Learning Partners Committee within the Board of Trustees • the 2007 – 2009 edition of the Strategic Plan will include a new strategic direction: to develop a regionally recognized Learning Partners Program
STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS AT LC[2004-2006 plan/ revised 2006] TO CONTINUOUSLY: • improve financial strength; • improve campus facilities; • manage enrollment; • create a purposeful academic community; • develop a regionally-recognized LD program; • maintain a civil and supportive learning environment; • improve information technologies; • improve communications, both internal and external; • strengthen the relationship with the congregations of The United Methodist Church
Hoshin Planning is Data-Driven • It is important to remember that Edwards Deming, the father of the QI movement, was a statistician • For Deming, data must be used to define, describe and assess effectiveness, but • Improvements should result from the mind/experience of the workers—not just from the voice of management
HOSHIN PLANNING • The Hoshin Planning technique is useful to small, single-purpose organizations and to large multi-complex institutions • The Hoshin Planning technique can be used institution-wide or by a unit within the institution
HOSHIN PLANNING AT LARGE INSTITUTIONS • Large institutions might wish to divide into schools, divisions, units or focus groups to consider a common issue? • Hoshin planning would be especially useful to large institutions attempting to envision their QEP
HOSHIN PLANNING AT SMALL INSTITUTIONS Small institutions might choose to work with the college community as a whole.
HOSHIN PLANNING AT SMALL INSTITUTIONS • At Louisburg College, we commenced the Hoshin Planning process by holding a College Meeting that invited: • All faculty—full-time and part-time • All staff—professional staff and support staff • All administrators
THOSE NOT INCLUDED • LC students did not participate in the Hoshin Planning process—although a separate exercise for them is projected • Trustees did not participate in this exercise—although a separate/simpler exercise for trustees has merit—think “trustee retreat” • Staff in housekeeping, maintenance, and grounds did not participate—although their supervisor did participate and although a separate exercise for them has merit
WHY HOSHIN PLANNING AT LC? • On a triennial basis, Louisburg College defines short-term objectives to help the College realize its strategic goals • During the 2005-2006 academic year, the College needed to commence developing the 2007-2009 edition of its strategic plan • The question: How do we move from “where we are” to “where we can be?”
ENVISIONING THE 2007-2009 EDITION OF THE STRATEGIC PLAN • The Assessment Committee considered various options and recommended to the Administrative Cabinet that the College commence the process of strategic planning with a Hoshin Planning exercise. • The Administrative Cabinet approved the recommendation of the Assessment Committee.
THE INVITATION The president of Louisburg College invited all professional members of the faculty and staff to gather on reading day (December 8) 2005 to consider a single question
The Question[contained in the letter of invitation] If you could do “just one thing” to improve student learning and/or the learning environment at Louisburg College, what would you do?
THE RESPONSE • 85 % of those invited (including nearly all full-time members of the faculty and staff) elected to participate, including • The president • All cabinet-level administrators • Full-time and part-time faculty • Professional staff • Support staff
REVIEW OF ASSESSMENT DATA • The first hour was devoted to a review and discussion of college-wide assessment data: • Freshman-year data • VP for Student Life • Graduating student data • Director of Institutional Research • Course completion data • Executive Vice President
THE HOSHIN PLANNING PROCESS[a review] • DEFINE THE FOCUS—WHAT DO YOU WANT TO IMPROVE? • ENVISION POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS BY BRAINSTORMING • RANK THE SUGGESTIONS • IMPLEMENT THE TOP SUGGESTIONS • 1 – 3 • 1 – 5 • 1 – 10 • ASSESS THE RESULTS • REPEAT THE PROCESS UNTIL QUALITY IS MAXIMIZED
ENVISION IMPROVEMENTS • Data fuel Hoshin Planning, but brainstorming is the engine • The LC facilitator was selected by Assessment Committee and was • A member of the faculty • A division chair • A member of the Assessment Committee • As a result of prior discussion/decision by the Assessment Committee, discussion of suggestions was intentionally limited
RESULTS OF BRAINSTROMING • The brainstorming session generated 119 suggestions for improving student learning and the learning environment at Louisburg College • At the conclusion of the session, participants were invited to forward additional suggestions to the Office of Institutional Effectiveness • Eleven additional suggestions were submitted electronically • Total Number of Suggestions: 130
THE ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENT[Step 1] • Using codes, suggestions resulting from the Hoshin Planning process were initially sorted according to foci/themes: • Campus Life [CL] • Educational Support Services [ES] • Facilities and Equipment [FE] • Information Technology [IT] • Learning Environment [LE] • Mission and Values [MV] • Student Engagement [SE] • Student Learning [SL] • Special Programs and Initiatives [SP]
HOSHIN ASSESSMENT AND PLANNINGTheLCRanking Process: Step 1 • Using the initial cohorts (foci), participants were invited to: • Assign a weight from 5 [most important] to 1 [least important] to each item in each cohort • Rank each item within each cohort from most important to least important—the highest rank was equated to the total number of items in the cohort • Across all cohorts, participants were invited to: • Rank the top 15 suggestions [15 – 1]
HOSHIN ASSESSMENT AND PLANNING[statistical analysis] • If the focus of Hoshin planning is “limited” (e.g., the QEP, improving the senior year experience), it is ordinarily easy to rank suggestions—we’ll see an example later • In the LC case, we needed to rank 130 different suggestions in 9 separate and unequal cohorts; therefore, data analysis was more complicated.
Hoshin Assessment and Planning[statistical analysis at LC] • The next few slides describe statistical analysis at LC • As we review the slides, we shall move quickly—”labor not” and “fear not” • Montaigne: “By diverse means, we arrive at the same end (Essais) • There are multiple models of data analysis • The good news--At our colleges and universities, help is always accessible
Hoshin Assessment and PlanningThe LC Ranking Process: Step 2 COLUMN A: Each participant was asked to assign a weight from 0 to 5 for each of the 130 items. The higher the weight (5), the more important that item is to the participant COLUMN B: Each participant was asked to assign a cohort ranking for each item in each original cohort, with the highest ranking in each cohort equated to the number of items within that cohort and moving downward. COLUMN C: Each participant was asked to rank his/her top 15 suggested improvements overall, starting with the number 15 and working downward
Equalizing Weights and Values[a prerequisite to overall rankings] • 14 items—Campus Life [CL] • 14 items—Educational Support [ES] • 12 items—Facilities and Equipment [FE] • 13 items—Information Technology [IT] • 21 items—Learning Environment [LE] • 09 items—Mission and Values [MV] • 19 items—Student Engagement [SE] • 18 items—Student Learning [SL] • 10 items—Special Programs/Initiatives [SP] • 130 items--TOTAL
Hoshin Assessment and PlanningThe Ranking Process: Step 3 Based on the values placed in columns A, B, and C, values are determined for the Calculated Cohort Value (Column A times Column B), and the Calculated Overall Value (Column A times Column C). If no value is assigned for column C, then there will be no Calculated Overall Value. If 0 is assigned for the weight in column A, there will be no Calculated Cohort Value and Calculated Overall Value.
Hoshin Assessment and PlanningThe Ranking Process: Step 4 The Cohort Factor is used to equalize and rank scores between the various cohorts. Since the highest number of items among the cohorts was 21, the number 21 is used (always) as the numerator of the Cohort Factor. The denominator is the number of items within the selected item cohort. The Cohort Factor Value is the decimal representation of the Cohort Factor.
Hoshin Assessment and PlanningThe Ranking Process: Step 5 After all surveys have been entered, the Cohort Average is calculated to indicate the mean of that item. The Weighted Cohort Average is the product of the Cohort Average and the Cohort Factor Value. The Final Cohort Rank is based on the chronological rank within the cohort. The higher the Final Cohort Rank value is, the more important it is within that cohort.