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Geographies of September 11th : How has the world changed? Before and after View from space Ground Zero Locale : Mapping Ground Zero Location : U.S. regions pulled together Attacks took place on East Coast, we did not experience them directly in our backyard.
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Rising 1,776 feet (tallest on Earth) with wind turbines on top
“Reflected Absence” fountains in footprints of Twin Towers
Skyscrapers vulnerable, provocative target
Pentagon functional, expected target
change the world.
British burn White House, 1812
Japanese fire balloons, 1944
Pancho Villa raids Columbus NM, 1916
Japanese bomb Hawaii, 1941
Srebrenica, Bosnia, 1995: 7,000 dead
United States, 2001: 3,000 dead
Rwanda, Africa, 1994: 800,000 dead
to justify crackdowns
Russians flatten capital of Chechnya
(though not necessarily centered on religion)
Indians in Kashmir
Israelis in West Bank and Gaza
Chinese in Xinjiang
Translated U.S. military leaflet dropped on Afghanistan
fight Soviet Union in Afghanistan:
"What was more important in the worldview of history? The Taliban or the fall of the Soviet Empire? A few stirred-up Muslims or the liberation of Central Europe and the end of the Cold War?” (President Carter’s national security advisor
Zbigniew Brzezinski, 1996).
New U.S. “Sphere of
Influence” in region.
Bases built to wage the
wars, or the wars waged
to build the bases?
2. Yugoslav Wars,
3. Afghan War,
4. Iraq War,
(though they hate each other)?
“There has been a remarkable reluctance in America to confront the more complex historical dimensions of this hatred. The inclination instead has been to rely on abstract assertions like terrorists ‘hate freedom’ or that their religious background makes them despise Western culture. To win the war on terrorism…. begin a political effort that focuses on the conditions that brought about their emergence.”
(President Carter’s national security advisor
Zbigniew Brzezinski, 2001).
U.S. regions have a common grievance & experience of war.
“Sense of place” of 9/11 attack sites.
New phase of anti- immigrant sentimentGeographies of September 11