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Endoscopy and Radiology for Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction. Hann-Chorng Kuo Department of Urology Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital. Lower Urinary Tract . Urinary bladder Ureteral orifices Trigone Bladder neck Prostate and prostatic urethra Urethral sphincter

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endoscopy and radiology for lower urinary tract dysfunction

Endoscopy and Radiology for Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction

Hann-Chorng Kuo

Department of Urology

Buddhist Tzu Chi General Hospital

lower urinary tract
Lower Urinary Tract
  • Urinary bladder
  • Ureteral orifices
  • Trigone
  • Bladder neck
  • Prostate and prostatic urethra
  • Urethral sphincter
  • Urethra (posterior, bulbous, anterior)
bladder wall in cystoscopy
Bladder wall in Cystoscopy
  • Smooth bladder wall
  • Trabeculated bladder wall
  • Diverticulum
  • Pseudodiverticulum
  • Bladder tumor
  • External compression
bladder mucosa
Bladder mucosa
  • Normal mucosa and vasculature
  • Hyperemia
  • Ischemia
  • Hemorrhagic cystitis
  • Cystitis cystica
  • Pseudomembranous trigonitis
  • Granulomatous cystitis
prostatic enlargement
Prostatic enlargement
  • Benign prostatic enlargement
  • Prostatic cancer
urethral stricture
Urethral Stricture
  • Bladder neck contracture
  • Membranous urethral stricture
  • Anterior urethral stricture
  • Anterior urethral valve
  • Meatal stenosis
ureteral orifice
Ureteral Orifice
  • Normal cone shape
  • Horseshoe shape
  • Stadium shape
  • Golf hole shape
  • Short submucosal ureteral tunnel
female urethral incompetence
Female Urethral Incompetence
  • Bladder neck incompetence
  • Urethral incompetence
uroradiology in lower urinary tract dysfunction
Uroradiology in Lower Urinary Tract Dysfunction
  • Intravenous pyelography (IVP)
  • Retrograde pyelography
  • Cystography
  • Voiding cystourethrography
  • Retrograde urethrography
  • Beaded chain cystourethrograph
  • Magnetic resonance image (MRI)
voiding cystourethrography
Voiding Cystourethrography
  • Bladder neck dysfunction
  • Prostatic obstruction
  • Urethral stricture
  • Anterior urethral valve
  • Vesicoureteral reflux
  • Bladder diverticulum
transrectal sonography
Transrectal sonography
  • Prostatic configuration
  • Urethral stricture
  • Bladder neck incompetence
  • Bladder base hypermobility
  • Intravesical pathology
prostate configuration
Prostate Configuration
  • Prostatic urethra
  • Transition zone of prostate
  • Seminal vesicle
  • Ejaculatory duct
  • Peripheral zone of prostate
  • Bladder neck
transition zone index tzi
Transition Zone Index (TZI)
  • Transition zone vol/ total prostate vol
  • A TZI of <0.3 indicates low possibility of prostatic obstruction, a TZI of >0.5 indicates highly suspicious prostatic obstruction
  • TZI correlates poorly with total prostatic volume