emotional and social development in middle childhood l.
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EMOTIONAL AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT IN MIDDLE CHILDHOOD. Basic Premise Associated With Psycho-social Development. Personality development is determined by stress which is caused by social factors in consort with innate biological predispositions.

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basic premise associated with psycho social development
Basic Premise Associated With Psycho-social Development
  • Personality development is determined by stress which is caused by social factors in consort with innate biological predispositions.
  • It is both the individual’s life experiences and his internal crisis which acts as a catylist to personality outcomes.
erikson s psychosocial model
Erikson’s Psychosocial Model
  • Internal crises which must have resolution to facilitate healthy personality development
    • Trust vs. Mistrust
    • Autonomy vs. Shame/Doubt
    • Initiative vs. Guilt
    • Industry vs. Inferiority
    • Identity vs. Confusion
    • Intimacy vs. Isolation
    • Generativity vs. Stagnation
    • Integrity vs. Despair
  • Quality of resolution may be related to quality of personality development
psychosocial development
  • Erikson’s Industry vs. Inferiority
    • According to Erikson, a combination of adult expectations and children’s drive towards mastery creates the crisis in this stage.
    • Formal schooling and socialization. Children are learning roles and talents.
self development middle childhood
Self-Development/Middle Childhood
  • Changes in self concept occur between ages 8 – 11. Children begin to:
    • Describe self in psychological traits
    • Compare self to peers (social comparisons)
    • Speculate about their strength and weaknesses
  • C. H. Cooley—Looking Glass Concept
self development in m childhood
Self Development in M. Childhood
  • Children increase in the development of perspective taking.
  • Between ages 8 and 15, children start to depend more on peers for feedback. However, parents continue to remain influential.
  • Development of self varies across cultures.
    • In US, we promote independence and uniqueness. Self is defined from the individual.
    • Asian parents promote harmonious interdependence. Self is defined from the social group.
development of self esteem
Development of Self-Esteem
  • Self-esteem refers to judgments children make about their own worth.
  • Self-esteem generally declines in Middle Childhood due to increased feedback from peers and school.
  • According to Harter (1982), Self-Esteem can be observed as:
    • Academic
    • Social
    • Physical
influences on self esteem
Influences on Self-Esteem
  • With high self-esteem, children work harder in school and artistic expression. They generally display greater prosocial behaviors.
  • Culture plays an influential role in self-esteem development.
    • Asian children tend to have lower self-esteem than US children.
  • Parenting styles also influence self-esteem development.
    • Which parenting style is most effective towards self-esteem development?
    • Does optimal parenting style vary as a function of culture?
self concept and attributions
Self Concept and Attributions
  • Attributions are our common, everyday explanations for the causes of behavior.
  • Children with high self-esteem develop demonstrate mastery attributions:
    • mastery-oriented attributions. Attributions that credit success to high ability and failure to insufficient efforts.
    • Learned helplessness attributions. Attributions that credit success to luck or failure to low ability.
emotional development
Emotional Development
  • Key develops:
    • Empathy. During middle childhood, children develop a sensitivity to the feelings of others.
    • Emotional Self-Regulation. The ability to manage negative emotions that threaten self development. Coping and problem-solving increases during this period.
      • Girls with poor self-regulation tend to freeze with anxiety.
      • Boys with poor self-regulation tend to lash out with hostility.
      • Children raised in institutions tend to have poor self-regulation.
development of competence in middle childhood
Development of Competence in Middle Childhood
  • Adjusting in School.
    • This becomes the 1st real test of social preparedness for middle schoolers. Key determinate for social integration.
  • Establishing Peer Relationships.
    • The quality of peer/friend alliances become a key marker for later adaptation in society.
  • Learning to play by the rules.
    • Rule-abiding as opposed to rule-breaking often predicts social and academic competence over the next decade.
  • Achieving Academically.
    • The ability to perform academically affects children’s perception of self and consequently contribute to efforts toward performance.
relationship development during middle childhood
Relationship Development During Middle Childhood
  • Parent/Child Relationships
    • Children spend about 50% less time with their parents than their preschool years
    • Family support remains important as children practice their developing skills in society
    • Optimal development occurs when parents employ structured autonomy. Quality relationship (Authoritative) is correlated with
      • academic performance (positive)
      • peer relationships (positive)
      • befriending of delinquent peers (lower)
      • Aggression (lower)
      • conflict in the classroom (lower)
  • Because children model, parents teach competence through their actions
family constellations among middle schoolers
Family Constellations Among Middle Schoolers
  • Over 50% of children born in 1990s experienced divorcing parents.
    • African-American children are at a higher risk (Why?)
    • African-American children are at greater risk to becoming single parents (Why?)
    • Both African-American and Hispanic families are less likely to remarry after divorce
  • 50% of children of divorce can expect to have step fathers within 4 years.
family constellations among middle schoolers cont
Family Constellations Among Middle Schoolers, Cont.
  • Most single parent families lack fathers
  • Some studies show:
    • Greater atmosphere of warmth
    • Increased mother interaction with children
    • More secure mother/child attachments
  • On the other hand:
    • These children tend to grow up feeling less cognitively and physically competent
family constellation cont
Family Constellation Cont.
  • Factors Associated With Divorce and Child Outcomes
    • Quality of Interaction
      • A vast majority of children of divorce adjust well to the changing family arrangement
      • Quality of parenting is more important than family arrangement
    • Developmental Stage
      • Preschoolers tend to display greater adjustment problems than middle schoolers (Why?)
      • Remarriage is more likely to have a lasting psychological impact on pre-adolescents (Why?)
    • Gender
      • Boys tend to have a more difficult time adjusting to divorce in middle school (Why?)
      • Boys are more likely to act out or externalize overtly. Girls are more likely to act out internally (i.e., engaging in self-blame, depression)
implosion theory
Implosion Theory
  • The child is experiencing rapid changes both internal and external
  • In part, internal changes are in response to external changes; external changes are in response to internal changes.
  • While trying to achieve a balance, what happens when the internal factors are depleted or diminished? What of my character? What of my motivation to thrive?