slide1 l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: SETTING PRIORITIES FOR URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: SETTING PRIORITIES FOR URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 29

COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: SETTING PRIORITIES FOR URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 321 Views
  • Uploaded on

COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: SETTING PRIORITIES FOR URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES. Presentation by Barbara Britton January 18, 2000. OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION. Part I Introduction and Background . Part II International Experience with CRA . Part III Methodology.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT: SETTING PRIORITIES FOR URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT:SETTING PRIORITIES FOR URBAN ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Presentation by Barbara Britton

January 18, 2000

outline of presentation
OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION

Part I Introduction and Background

Part II International Experience with CRA

Part III Methodology

history of comparative risk assessment
HISTORY OF COMPARATIVE RISK ASSESSMENT
  • First used in the U.S. in 1987
    • “Unfinished Business” evaluated 31 problems and changed USEPA priorities
    • Many projects completed for regions, states, and cities
  • Used outside the U.S. by USAID and USEPA
    • First assessment was in Bangkok, 1990
    • Assessments completed for about 10 cities and regions
slide5

What DID EPA Learn From Comparative Risk Efforts?

  • Chemical-Specific, Media-Specific, Technology-Based Approaches have Limitations
  • Policies Based on Comparative Risk Assessments Could Lead to More Efficient Use of Resources and Greater Protection of Public Health and the Environment
environmental management
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT

Comparative Health Risk Assessment is used to set priorities for environmental management.

Identify and evaluate

risks, set priorities

among problems.

Risk Assessment

Develop and

implement solutions for

high priority problems

Risk Management

environmental risks
ENVIRONMENTAL RISKS

Environmental damage may have three types of negative effects.



Public Health--illness, injuries, deaths

Ecological--loss of species and habitat

Quality of Life--economic and social costs

types of risk assessment
TYPES OF “RISK ASSESSMENT”

Health Risk Assessment:

evaluates the potential public health impacts of an environmental condition

Comparative Health Risk Assessment:

evaluates and compares the potential health

impacts of severalenvironmental conditions

Comparative Risk Assessment:

evaluates and compares the potential health,

ecological, and quality-of-life impacts of

several environmental conditions

international experience with comparative risk assessment
International Experience WithComparative Risk Assessment

Bangkok: Accelerated plans for banning lead in gasoline

Cairo: USAID projects to reduce air pollution and lead contamination

Ahmedabad: Municipal program to reduce air pollution from transport

Lima: USAID environmental health project under design

Silesia: USAID technical assistance to high risk industrial facilities

high risk problems from five cras
“HIGH RISK” PROBLEMS FROM FIVE CRAs

Environmental Problem Categories

Quito

Cairo

Lima

Bangkok

Ahmedabad

Water, Sanitation, or

Microbial Diseases

Ambient PM

Indoor Air

Lead

Air Pollution from Transport

Solid Waste

cra results bangkok

Bangkok, Thailand (1990)

Airborne Particulate Matter

Lead Contamination

High

Microbiological Diseases

Carbon Monoxide (CO)

Moderate

Other Metals

Toxic Air Pollutants

Other Gaseous Air Pollutants (SO2, NO2, O3)

Surface Water Contamination

Low

Ground Water Contamination

Pesticides & Metals in Food

Solid & Hazardous Wastes

CRA RESULTS: BANGKOK
cra results cairo

Cairo, Egypt (1994)

Airborne Particulate Matter

Lead (all media)

High

Microbiological Diseases

Microbiological Contamination of Food

Moderate

Ozone

Other Gaseous Air Pollutants (SO2, CO)

Moderate/Low

Indoor Air Pollution

Drinking Water (microbes, chemicals)

Solid and Hazardous Wastes

Toxic Air Pollutants

Low

Other Water Pathways (e.g. fish, irrigation)

CRA RESULTS: CAIRO
cra results ahmedabad

Ahmedabad, India (1995)

Air Pollution from Mobile Sources

Ambient Air Pollution (all sources)

High

Indoor Air Pollution

Drinking Water

Moderate

Wastewater

Occupational Hazards

Low

Traffic Hazards

Food Contamination

CRA RESULTS: AHMEDABAD
cra results lima

Lima, Peru (1997)

Inadequate Water Supply

Inadequate Sanitation

High

Solid Waste

Surface and Groundwater Contamination

Food Contamination

Moderate

Air Pollution

Water Pollution (marine)

Hazardous Waste

Low

Toxic Substances

Indoor Air Pollution

Loss of Landscaped Areas & Farm Land

CRA RESULTS: LIMA
steps in risk assessment
STEPS IN RISK ASSESSMENT

Health risk assessment is quantitative, based on experimental and observational data.

Hazard Identification--

identify health risks associated with exposure

Dose-Response Assessment--

model the relationship between dose and effects

Exposure Assessment--

estimate a group’s exposure (amount, duration)

Risk Characterization--

estimate the probability and severity of effects

conceptual model linking environmental conditions and health

Source

Transport and Fate in the Body

Discharge

Transport and Fate in the Environment

Dose Target Organs

Exposure

Damage, Disease, or Death

Intake

CONCEPTUAL MODEL LINKING ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS AND HEALTH
example health risk assessment
EXAMPLE:HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

Health Risk Assessment in Bangkok:

  • Population: 5.9 million
  • Airborne particulates: 90 - 200 g/m3
  • Health effects (per year):
    • 9 - 51 million restricted activity days
    • 300 - 1400 deaths
example health risk assessment20
EXAMPLE:HEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

Health Risk Assessment in Quito, Ecuador:

Population: 1.1 million

Pesticides in food:

44.3 g/day intake of heptachlor

11.0 g/day intake of aldrin

Health Effects:

0.3 to 9.1 x 10-3 lifetime cancer risk

Up to 150 excess cancer cases/year

example comparative health risk assessment
EXAMPLE: COMPARATIVEHEALTH RISK ASSESSMENT

Quito, Ecuador (1993)

Risk

Metropolitan Area

Asentamientos Populares

Microbiological Diseases (Food)

Microbiological Diseases (Food)

High

Airborne Particulate Matter

Airborne Particulate Matter

Indoor Air Quality

Occupational Disease and Injuries

Drinking Water and Wastewater

Traffic Injuries

Traffic Injuries

Drinking Water and Wastewater

Solid & Hazardous Waste Disposal

Moderate

Indoor Air Quality

Occupational Disease and Injuries

Solid & Hazardous Waste Disposal

Pesticides in Food

Low

Pesticides in Food

cra methodology
CRA METHODOLOGY

Four Phases of Comparative Risk Assessment

  • Planning
    • Determine scope of the study
    • Select and organize the team
    • Identify data types and sources
  • Data Collection and Analysis
    • Identify and gather data
    • Analyze data to estimate risks
  • Priority Setting
    • Interpret and compare risks
    • Debate and agree on priorities
  • Reporting
    • Prepare report as input to risk management planning
functions and responsibilities
FUNCTIONS AND RESPONSIBILITIES

The organization of a CRA must address five necessary functions:

Function

Typical Unit

Project Management and oversight

Project Manager

Policy direction and project mandate

Steering Committee

Public participation

Public Advisory Committee

Final risk ranking

Steering Committee or Public Advisory Committee

Technical Committees

Technical analysis--data collection, risk assessment, preliminary ranking

participatory aspects of cras
PARTICIPATORY ASPECTS OF CRAs
  • Broad participation is critical because:
  • Analysis is multi-disciplinary and highly complex
  • Setting priorities are ultimately based on values
  • of the community
  • Broad participation is linked to acceptance of
  • CRA results and implementation of actions to
  • reduce risks
technical analysis
TECHNICAL ANALYSIS
  • Identify and evaluate health impacts of manyenvironmental conditions
    • water and food
    • sanitation, drainage, and wastewater
    • ambient and indoor air, gases and particles
    • solid and hazardous wastes
    • occupational injuries and exposures
    • infectious, vector-borne, and pollutant-related diseases
adapting technical analysis for cra in developing countries

ISSUE

RESPONSE

ADAPTING TECHNICAL ANALYSIS FOR CRA IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

Scope includes infectious diseases, outside traditional risk assessment methods

Use health data from clinics and local survey to estimate disease rates.

Use environmental, health, and qualitative data

Limited information and many data gaps.

Data are not computerized and are aggregated at inappropriate geographic levels.

Reorganize information; use assumptions and extrapolation where necessary.

Some standard exposure assumptions are inappropriate due to culture or conditions.

Adjust assumptions; conduct special studies if possible.

priority setting
PRIORITY SETTING
  • Categorize each health impact by magnitude and severity
    • magnitude -- number of people affected
    • severity -- of effect, and importance of group affected
  • Combine magnitude and severity scores
  • Compare and categorize environmental problems
    • high, medium, and low risk
cra risk ranking
CRA Risk Ranking

Risk ranking requires judgments based on values

Comparing health effects:

acute vs. chronic

disease vs accidents

Comparing effects among groups:

children vs. working adults vs. elderly

poor vs. middle income

voluntarily exposed vs. involuntary exposed

women vs. men

conclusion
Conclusion
  • CRA’s can form an effective basis for urban environmental management planning
  • Allow cities to address worst environmental problems first
  • Broad-based participation is crucial to ensure risk ranking reflects views of entire community
  • Stakeholder involvement is pivotal to ensuring risk assessment results translate into management action