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Basic Nursing: Foundations of Skills & Concepts Chapter 10. DOCUMENTATION. Documentation. Written evidence of: The interactions between and among health care professionals, clients, their families, and health care organizations.

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Basic Nursing: Foundations of Skills & Concepts Chapter 10


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    1. Basic Nursing: Foundations of Skills & Concepts Chapter 10 DOCUMENTATION

    2. Documentation Written evidence of: • The interactions between and among health care professionals, clients, their families, and health care organizations. • The administration of tests, procedures, treatments, and client education. • The results of, or client’s response to, diagnostic tests and interventions

    3. Professional responsibility Accountability Communication Education Research Satisfaction of Legal and Practice standards Reimbursement Purposes of Documentation

    4. Documentation as Communication • Documentation is a communication method that confirms the care provided to the client. • It clearly outlines all important information regarding the client.

    5. Documentation as Education • The medical record can be used by health care students as a teaching tool. • It is a main source of data for clinical research.

    6. Documentation & Research • The medical record is a main source of data for clinical research.

    7. Legal & Practice Standards • Nurses are responsible for assessing and documenting that the client has an understanding of treatment prior to intervention. • Two indicators of the above are Informed Consent and Advance Directives.

    8. Informed Consent • A competent client’s ability to make health care decisions based on full disclosure of the benefits, risks, and potential consequences of a recommended treatment plan. • The client’s agreement to the treatment as indicated by the client’s signing a consent form.

    9. Advanced Directives • Written instructions about a client’s health care preferences regarding life-sustaining measures. (e.g. living will and durable power of attorney for health care). • Allows clients, while competent, to participate in end-of-life decisions.

    10. Documentation & Reimbursement • Accreditation and reimbursement agencies require accurate and thorough documentation of the nursing care rendered and the client’s response to interventions.

    11. Assessment. Nursing Diagnosis. Planning and outcome identification. Implementation. Evaluation. Revisions of planned care. Principles of Effective Documentation Elements of nursing process needed to be made evident in documentation include:

    12. Use a common vocabulary. Write legibly and neatly. Use only authorized abbreviations and symbols. Employ factual and time-sequenced organization. Document accurately and completely, including any errors. Elements of Effective Documentation To ensure effective documentation, nurses should:

    13. Narrative Charting Source-oriented charting Problem-oriented charting PIE charting Focus charting Charting by exception Computerized documentation Critical pathways Methods of Documentation

    14. Narrative Charting • This traditional method of nursing documentation takes the form of a story written in paragraphs. • Before the advent of flow sheets, this was the only method for documenting care.

    15. Source-Oriented Charting • A narrative recording by each member (source) of the health care team on separate records.

    16. Problem-Oriented Charting • Focuses on the client’s problem and employs a structured, logical format called SOAP charting: • S: Subjective data (what the client states) • O: Objective data (what is observed/inspected) • A: Assessment • P: Plan

    17. PIE Charting • PROBLEM • INTERVENTION • EVALUATION

    18. Focus Charting • A documentation method that uses a column format to chart data, action, and response (DAR).

    19. Charting by Exception • A documentation method that requires the nurse to document only deviations from pre-established norms.

    20. Charting by Exception • A documentation method that requires the nurse to document only deviations from pre-established norms.

    21. Decreased documentation time. Increased legibility and accuracy. Clear, decisive, and concise words. Statistical analysis of data. Enhanced implementation of the nursing process. Enhanced decision making. Multidisciplinary networking. Computerized Documentation:Advantages

    22. Critical Pathways • A comprehensive, standard plan of care for specific case situations. • The pathway is monitored to ensure that interventions are performed on time and client outcomes are achieved on time.

    23. Forms for Recording Data • Kardex • Flow Sheets • Nurse’s Progress Notes • Discharge Summary

    24. Kardex • A summary worksheet reference of basic information that traditionally is not part of the record. Usually contains: • Client data (name, age, marital status, religious preference, physician, family contact). • Medical diagnoses: listed by priority. • Allergies. • Medical orders (diet, IV therapy, etc.). • Activities permitted.

    25. Flow Sheets • Vertical or horizontal columns for recording dates and times and related assessment and intervention information. Also included are notes on: • Client teaching. • Use of special equipment. • IV Therapy.

    26. Nurse’s Progress Notes • Used to document: • Client’s condition, problems, and complaints. • Interventions. • Client’s response to interventions. • Achievement of outcomes.

    27. Discharge Summary Highlights client’s illness and course of care. Includes: • Client’s status at admission and discharge. • Brief summary of client’s care. • Intervention and education outcomes. • Resolved problems and continuing care needs. • Client instructions regarding medications, diet, food-drug interactions, activity, treatments, follow-up and other special needs.

    28. Trends in Documentation • Nursing Minimum Data Set. • Nursing Diagnoses. • Nursing Intervention Classification. • Nursing Outcomes Classification.

    29. Nursing Minimum Data Set • The elements that should be contained in clinical records and abstracted for studies on the effectiveness and costs of nursing care. Focuses on: • Demographics. • Service. • Nursing care.

    30. Nursing Diagnoses • A clinical judgment about individual, family, or community responses to actual or potential health problems or life processes.

    31. Nursing Intervention Classification • A comprehensive standardized language for nursing interventions organized in a three-level taxonomy.

    32. Nursing Outcomes Classification • A classification system that comprises 190 outcome labels and corresponding definitions, measures, indicators, and references.

    33. Summary Reports • The outlining of information pertinent to the client’s needs as identified by the nursing process. • Commonly given at end-of-shift.

    34. Walking Rounds • A reporting method used when the members of the care team walk to each client’s room and discuss care and progress with each other and with the client.

    35. Telephone Reports and Orders • Telephone communications are another way nurses: • Report transfers. • Communicate referrals. • Obtain client data. • Solve problems. • Inform a client’s family members regarding a change in client’s condition.

    36. Incident Reports • The documentation of any unusual occurrence or accident in the delivery of client care, such as falls or medication errors.