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Technology In Action Technology In Action Chapter 3 Using the Internet: Making the Most of the Web’s Resources Topics Internet communications Internet multimedia E-Commerce Online annoyances Web browsers URLs Hyperlinks More Topics Search engines Web site evaluation Internet data

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technology in action2
Technology In Action

Chapter 3

Using the Internet:

Making the Most of the Web’s Resources

topics
Topics
  • Internet communications
  • Internet multimedia
  • E-Commerce
  • Online annoyances
  • Web browsers
  • URLs
  • Hyperlinks
more topics
More Topics
  • Search engines
  • Web site evaluation
  • Internet data
  • Internet service providers
  • Internet basics
  • Origin of the Internet
  • Future of the Internet
internet communications
Internet Communications
  • The Internet
    • The largest computer network in the world
    • A network of networks, connecting billions of computer users
    • It is thought that nearly 150 countries have some form of connection to the Internet
    • Internet Uses:
      • Communication – Primary usage
      • Shopping
      • Searching for information
      • Fun
internet communications6
Internet Communications
  • Instant Messaging
  • Voice over Internet (VoIP)
  • Weblogs
  • Podcasts
  • Webcasts and Wikis
  • Chat Rooms
  • Newsgroups
  • E-mail
instant messaging
Instant Messaging
  • Programs that enable you to communicate in real time with others who are also online
  • When you use IM
    • You set up a list of contacts
      • Buddy list
  • To communicate with someone from your buddy list, that person must be online at the same time
instant messaging8
Instant Messaging
  • When someone is trying to communicate with you when you are online
    • You are notified
    • You can then accept orreject the communication
  • You can also holdsimultaneous individual conversations
  • If you all want to talk together you can create custom IM chat rooms
voice over internet protocol
Voice over Internet Protocol
  • VoIP – A form of voice-based Internet communication that turns a standard Internet connection into a means to place phone calls, including long distance phone calls
  • Uses technology similar to e-mail to send voice data digitally
voice over internet protocol10
Voice over Internet Protocol
  • Requires
    • Speakers
    • A microphone
    • An Internet connection
    • A VoIP provider
      • www.skype.com
        • Requires that both the person placing the call and the person receiving the call have its free software installed on their computers
      • www.vonage.com
        • Lets you use your own telephone (instead of the speakers and microphone system) by connecting your phone to a special adapter that the company provides
voice over internet protocol11
Voice over Internet Protocol
  • Services differ
    • Free services require an account on both ends
    • Paid services connect phone to computer
    • Cable and DSL providers offer phone through broadband
    • WiFi IP phones call through Internet hotspots and wireless networks
weblogs blogs
Weblogs (blogs)
  • Personal logs, or journal entries that are posted on the Web
  • Available to the public
  • Simple to create, read, and manage
  • Entries listed on a single page with themost recent entry at the top
  • Searchable
  • Some are personal
  • Many are focused on a topic
podcasts
Podcasts
  • Video blog (vlog)
  • A clip of audio or video content that is broadcast over the Internet using compressed audio files such as MP3s
    • Radio shows
    • Audio books and magazines
    • Educational programs
podcasts14
Podcasts
  • You must subscribe to be able to access the most current version of the online content which is delivered to your computer automatically so that you can listen to the content when you want
podcasts15
Podcasts
  • You can listen to the content on your computer by using a media player
    • RealPlayer
    • Windows Media Player
  • You can transfer the content from your computer to a portable device
    • iPod
podcasts16
Podcasts
  • Uses RSS (Really Simple Syndication) technology
    • An XML-based format that allows frequent updates of content on the World Wide Web
    • Requires “aggregator” software to gather podcasts
      • Software programs that go out and grab the latest update of Web material according to your specifications
podcasts17
Podcasts
  • Can be found all over the Web
    • Most newspapers, TV news, and radio sites offer podcasts of their programming
    • Some popular TV shows are available via Podcasts
    • Some web sites allow you to download entire books so that they can be listened to anywhere
podcasts18
Podcasts
  • Education
    • Many schools are beginning to recognize this format as a means to supply students with course content updates
    • Instructors are creating podcasts of their lectures
webcasts
Webcasts
  • Webcasts
    • Broadcast of audio/visual content over the Internet
    • Not updated automatically
      • The most current content must be located manually by the user and then downloaded
    • Use streaming media technology to facilitate the viewing and downloading process of large audio and video files.
webcasts20
Webcasts
  • Webcasts
    • Can include noninteractive content
      • A simulcast of a radio or TV broadcast
    • Recently webcasts have initiated interactive responses from the viewing or listening audience
    • Also used in the corporate world to broadcast annual meetings and in the educational arena to transmit seminars
wikis
Wikis
  • Wikis
    • A Web site that allows anyone to change its content by adding, removing, or editing the content
      • www.wikipedia.org
    • The content is updated continuously and kept accurate by the many expert eyes that view the content
      • In late 2005, Wikipedia content was measured for accuracy in its scientific content and was found to be as accurate as the Encyclopedia Britannica
wikis22
Wikis
  • Wikis
    • Provide an excellent source for collaborative writing both in and out of the classroom
    • Like blogs, wikis can be used to express thoughts and opinions about certain topics
    • Unlike blogs, wikis can be edited and therefore maintain a more “common” opinion, rather than the direct expressed opinion of the initial individual writer
e mail
E-mail
  • Electronic mail
  • A written messagethat is sent and received over electronic communication systems
  • The message can beformatted and enhanced with graphics as well as include other files as attachments
  • The primary method of electronic communication because its fast and convenient and reduces the cost of postage and long-distance phone calls
e mail24
E-mail
  • What is needed
    • A computer
    • An Internet connection
    • An e-mail account
e mail25
E-mail
  • E-mail software
    • Client-based
      • Accessible only from the computer on which it is installed
    • Web-based
      • Accessible from any computer with Internet access
  • Spam
    • Prevention
chat rooms
Chat Rooms
  • An area on the Web where many people come together to communicate online
  • The conversations occur in real time and are visible to everyone in the chat room
chat rooms27
Chat Rooms
  • Focus on specific topics or interests
  • Identity protection
    • Username
    • Password
chat rooms vs im
Chat Rooms Vs IM
  • When you use IM services, you have private conversations with people you know
  • With Chat Rooms, anyone who enters the chat room can take part in the conversation
chat rooms29
Chat Rooms
  • General rules of etiquette (Netiquette)
    • Obvious standards of behavior
      • Introducing yourself when you enter a chat room
      • Specifically address the person you are talking to
    • Users are also expected to refrain from
      • Swearing
      • Name calling
      • Using explicit or prejudiced language
      • Harassing other participants
  • Users cannot post the same text repeatedly with the intent to disrupt the chat
newsgroups
Newsgroups
  • Online discussion forums in which people create threads, or conversations
  • In a thread, a newsgroup member will post messages and read and reply to messages from other members of the newsgroup
newsgroups31
Newsgroups
  • Newsgroup directory
    • www.tile.net/news
listservs
LISTSERVS
  • Electronic mailing lists of e-mail addresses of people who are interested in a certain topic or area of interest
  • Listservs have been replaced to some extent by newsgroups
social networking
Social Networking
  • Social networkingsites like MySpace.com
  • Members share common interests
  • Members communicate by voice, chat, instant message, video, and blogs
  • Members create personalized profiles
  • Growth has been explosive
  • Risks must be recognized and reduced
web entertainment
Web Entertainment
  • Multimedia:
    • Involves forms of media and text
      • Graphics
      • Audio
      • Video
    • Streaming audio and video
    • Plug-in
web entertainment35
Web Entertainment
  • Streaming Audio and Video
    • Continuously feeds an audio file and a video file to your browser so you avoid having to wait for the entire file to download completely before listening to it or viewing it
web entertainment36
Web Entertainment
  • Plug-In
    • To view and hear some multimedia files on the Web, you a need special software program called a plug-in
      • Page 104
    • For plug-ins you don’t have, the Web Site requiring the plug-in usually displays a message on the screen that includes links to a site where you can download the plug-in free of charge
web entertainment37
Web Entertainment
  • Plug-In
    • Most plug-ins and players will alert you to check for and download upgrades when they are available
web entertainment38
Web Entertainment
  • Plug-In
    • When a browser requires a plug-in to display particular web content, it usually automatically accesses the plug-in, generally without asking you for consent to start the plug-in
    • This automatic access can present security risks
    • To minimize such risks, update your plug-ins and browser software frequently so that you will have the most up-to-date remedies against identified security flaws
web entertainment39
Web Entertainment
  • Loading Multimedia Files Faster
    • Your browser keeps track of the Web Sites you’ve visited so that it can load them faster the next time you visit them
    • This cache can make your Internet surfing more efficient, but it can also congest your hard drive
    • To keep your system running efficiently, delete your temporary internet cache periodically
conducting business over the internet

Suppliers

Retailer

Manufacturer

Conducting Business Over the Internet
  • E-Commerce (Electronic Commerce)
    • The business of conducting business online for purposes ranging from fund-raising to advertising to selling products
    • Grows in importance every day with billions of dollars worth of transactions

B2B

E-commerce

conducting business over the internet41

Suppliers

Retailer

Manufacturer

Conducting Business Over the Internet
  • E-Commerce:
    • Business-to-consumer (B2C)
      • Transactions that take place between businesses and consumers
        • Purchases at online stores
    • Business-to-business (B2B)
      • Businesses buying and selling goods and services to other businesses

B2B

E-commerce

conducting business over the internet42

Suppliers

Retailer

Manufacturer

Conducting Business Over the Internet
  • E-Commerce:
    • Consumer-to-consumer (C2C)
      • Consumers selling to each other through online auction sites

B2B

E-commerce

e commerce safeguards
E-Commerce Safeguards
  • When you buy something over the Web, you most likely use a credit card
  • The exchange of money is done directly between you and a bank
  • Because online shopping eliminates a sales clerk or other human intermediary from the transaction, it can actually be safer than the traditional retail transaction
  • Because online shopping Spam – electronic junk mail
e commerce safeguards44
E-Commerce Safeguards
  • Businesses still must have some form of security certification to give their customers a level of comfort
  • Businesses hire security companies to certify that their online transactions are secure
    • VeriSign
      • If the Web site displays the VeriSign seal, you can usually trust that the information you submit to the site is protected
e commerce safeguards45
E-Commerce Safeguards
  • Another indication that a Web site is secure is
    • the appearance of s small icon of a closed padlock
    • The beginning of the URL of the site will change from http:// to https://, with the s standing for “secure”
e commerce safeguards46
E-Commerce Safeguards
  • To ensure that your online experience is a safe one:
    • Shop at well-known, reputable sites
      • www.bbb.org
      • www.bizrate.com
      • www.webassured.com
    • When you place an order, print a copy of the order and make sure you receive a confirmation number
e commerce safeguards47
E-Commerce Safeguards
  • To ensure that your online experience is a safe one:
    • Make sure the company has a phone number and street address in addition to a Web site.
    • Always pay by credit card
    • Check the return policy
online annoyances
Online Annoyances
  • As the Internet has grown, so have the annoying things on it
  • Some of these are dangerous and some merely annoying
online annoyances49
Online Annoyances
  • Spam – electronic junk mail
    • Companies find your e-mail address either from a list they purchase or with software that looks for e-mail addresses on the Internet
      • If you’ve used your e-mail address to purchase anything online or to open an online account
      • If you’ve participated in a newsgroup or chat room
    • Create a free Web-based e-mail address that you use only when you fill out forms on the Web
slide50
Spam
  • Junk e-Mail
  • Spam filters
    • Can catch up to 95% of spam
    • Check incoming e-mail subjectheaders and sending addresses against databases of known spam
slide51
Spam
  • Spam filters
    • Check your e-mail for frequently used spam patterns and keywords
    • E-mail identified as spam goes to a folder set up for spam
    • Spam filters aren’t perfect
slide52
Spam
  • Anti-spam Practices
    • Before registering on a Web Site, read its privacy policy to see how it uses your e-mail addresses
    • Don’t reply to spam to remove yourself from the spam list
    • Subscribe to an e-mail forwarding service
      • These services screen your e-mail messages, forwarding only those messages you designate as being ok to accept
        • www.emailailias.com
        • www.sneakemail.com
adware
Adware
  • Programs that download on your computer when you install a freeware program, game, or utility
  • A legitimate means of generating revenue for those developers who do not charge for their software
  • Adware enables sponsored advertisements to appear in a section of your browser window or as a pop-up ad box
pop ups
Pop-ups
  • The billboards of the Internet
  • Often offer “useful” information or tout products
  • Some sites use pop-ups to increase the functionality of their Web site
  • Many pop-ups are just plain annoying
pop ups55
Pop-ups
  • Pop-up Blockers
    • The most recent upgrade to Windows XP Service Pack 2) includes a Pop-up Blocker for Internet Explorer which allows you to selectively block pop-ups
    • If you feel you need more protection, you can install anti-pop-up software
    • Two free anti-pop-up programs are available at www.download.com
      • Pop-Up Stopper Companion
      • Super Ad Blocker
cookies
Cookies
  • Small text files that some Web sites automatically store on your computer’s hard drive when you visit the site
  • When you log on to a Web site that uses cookies, a cookie file assigns an ID number to your computer
cookies57
Cookies
  • The next time you log on to that site, the site marks your visit and keeps track of it in its database
cookies58
Cookies
  • Cookies provide Web sites with information about your browsing habits
    • The ads you’ve opened
    • The products you’ve looked at
    • The time duration of your visits
  • Cookies also remember personal information you enter into Web site forms
    • Credit card information
    • Name
    • Address
    • Phone number
cookies59
Cookies
  • Companies use this information to determine the traffic flowing through their Web site and the effectiveness of their marketing strategy and Web site placement
  • By tracking which pages you view, how long you stay on the site, and how many times you come back to the site, cookies enable companies to identify different users’ preferences
cookies60
Cookies
  • Some sites sell the personal information their cookies collect to Web advertisers that are building huge databases of consumer preferences and habits
spyware
Spyware
  • Added as a program piggybacked with a requested program
  • Gathers information, usually about surfing habits
    • Cookies
  • Antivirus software doesn’t detect it
  • Spyware removal programs are required
malware
Malware
  • Although it’s annoying, adware renders no harm to your computer
  • Malware is software that has a malicious intent
    • Spyware is a form of malware
  • Other forms are viruses, worms, and Trojan horses
  • Designed to render a computer useless or penetrate it completely
phishing
Phishing
  • If you receive an official looking e-mail from your bank saying that there has been a software security breach and to help regain control you need to confirm your username and password – don’t do it
  • Phishing lures Internet users into revealing personal information such as credit card or social security numbers or other sensitive information that could lead to identity theft
phishing64
Phishing
  • The best way to avoid falling for such scams is to avoid replying directly to any e-mail asking you for personal information
  • Never give personal information over the Internet unless you know the site is a secure one
  • Look for the closed padlock, https, or a certification seal, such as VeriSign, to indicate that the site is secure
hoaxes
Hoaxes
  • Internet hoaxes contain information that is untrue
  • Hoax e-mail messages may request that you send money to cover medical costs for an impoverished and sick child or ask you to pass on bogus information
  • Chain e-mail letters also are considered a form of Internet hoax
hoaxes66
Hoaxes
  • If you receive an e-mail you think might be a hoax, don’t pass it on
  • First determine whether it is a hoax by visiting the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hoaxbusters site
    • http://hoaxbusters.ciac.org
navigating the web web browsers
Navigating the Web: Web Browsers
  • Software installed on your computer that allows you to locate,view, and navigate the Web
navigating the web web browsers68
Navigating the Web: Web Browsers
  • Web browsers are graphical. They can display pictures (graphics) in addition to text, as well as other forms of multimedia, such as sound and video
navigating the web web browsers69
Navigating the Web: Web Browsers
  • Common Web browsers are:
    • Internet Explorer
    • Netscape Navigator
    • Camino (Mac OSX)
  • The browser’s toolbar provides convenient navigation and Web page management tools
getting around the web
Getting Around the Web
  • Web sites
  • URLs
  • Hyperlinks
  • Favorites and Bookmarks
web sites
Web Sites
  • The Web is a series of connected paths, or links, that connect you to different Web sites, or locations on the Web

Home page

Related pages

web sites73
Web Sites
  • Web site:
    • Collection of related Web pages
    • First page known as Home or Index page
  • Web page:
    • HTML document
      • Text and graphics
    • Unique address
    • Hyperlinks

Home page

Related pages

web sites74
Web Sites
  • You gain initial access to a particular Web site by typing its unique address or Uniform Resource Locator (URL) in your browser
slide75
URL
  • URL:
    • Uniform Resource Locator
    • Unique Web site address

Protocol identifies the means of access

Domain name contains the host and top-level domain

Path identifies the subdirectories within the Web site

URL

http://

www.nytimes.com/

Pages/cartoons/

slide76
URL
  • Protocol
    • http
      • HyperText Transfer Protocol
      • Allows files to be transferred from a Web server so that you can see them on your computer by using a browser
    • ftp
      • File Transfer Protocol
      • Used to upload and download files from one computer to another
        • FTP server
slide77
URL
  • URL:
    • Uniform Resource Locator
    • Unique Web site address

Protocol identifies the means of access

Domain name contains the host and top-level domain

Path identifies the subdirectories within the Web site

URL

http://

www.nytimes.com/

Pages/cartoons/

slide78
URL
  • Domain Name
    • Consists of two parts
      • The first part identifies who the site’s host is
        • www.berkeley.edu
          • berkeley.edu is the domain name
          • berkeley is the host
          • The three-letter suffix in the domain name is called the top-level domain (TLD)
          • This suffix indicates the kind of organization to which the host belongs
current top level domains
Current Top-Level Domains

.aero Members of the air transport industry

.biz Businesses

.com Can be used by anyone

.coop Cooperative associations

.edu Degree granting institutions

.gov United States government

.info Information service providers

.mil United States military

.museum Museums

.name Individuals

.net Networking organizations

.org Organizations (often nonprofits)

.pro Credentialed professionals

slide80
URL
  • URL:
    • Uniform Resource Locator
    • Unique Web site address

Protocol identifies the means of access

Domain name contains the host and top-level domain

Path identifies the subdirectories within the Web site

URL

http://

www.nytimes.com/

Pages/cartoons/

slide81
URL
  • Domain Name
    • When the URL is only the domain name, you are requesting a site’s home page
      • www.nytimes.com
    • At times, a forward slash and additional text follow the domain name
    • The information after the slash indicates a particular file or path (subdirectory) within the Web site
      • www.nytimes.com/pages/cartoons
        • The cartoon pages in the New York Times site
hyperlinks
Hyperlinks
  • Once you’ve reached a Web site, you can jump from one location, or Web page, to another within the same Web site or to another Web site altogether by clicking on specially coded text called hyperlinks
hyperlinks83
Hyperlinks
  • Generally, text that operates as a hyperlink appears in a different color (often blue) and is underlined
  • Sometimes images also act as hyperlinks
  • When you pass your cursor over a hyperlinked image, the cursor changes to a hand with a finger pointing upward
hyperlinks84
Hyperlinks
  • The History list on your browser’s tool bar shows all the Web sites and pages that you’ve visited over a certain period of time
hyperlinks85
Hyperlinks
  • A Breadcrumb list – A list of pages within a Web site you’ve visited that usually appears at the top of a page
favorites and bookmarks
Favorites and Bookmarks
  • An easy method of returning to Web pages
  • This feature places a marker of the site’s URL in an easily retrievable list in your browser’s toolbar List created of favorite Web pages
    • Internet Explorer uses Favorites
    • Netscape uses Bookmarks
    • Live Bookmarks use RSS
  • To organize the sitesinto categories, most browsers also offer tools to create folders
favorites and bookmarks87
Favorites and Bookmarks
  • To access your Bookmarks and Favorites from any computer, anywhere, you can use My Bookmarks (www.mybookmarks.comA free Internet service that stores your Bookmarks and Favorites online
  • This feature places a marker of the site’s URL in an easily retrievable list in your browser’s toolbar
  • To organize the sites into categories, most browsers also offer tools to create folders
live bookmarks
Live Bookmarks
  • Add the technology of RSS (Real Simple Syndication) feeds to bookmarking
  • Because the Web is constantly changing, the site you bookmarked last week may subsequently change and add new content
  • You would notice the change only the next time you visited the site
  • Instead of constantly checking your favorite Web pages for new content, a live bookmark delivers updates to you as soon as they become available
    • Stock prices, sports scores, up-to-date news stories
tabbed browsing
Tabbed Browsing
  • Found on Firefox and Safari browsers
  • Multiple pages in same browser window
search engines
Search Engines
  • A set of programs that searches the Web for specific keywords you wish to query and then returns a list of Web sites on which those keywords are found
search engines91
Search Engines
  • Have three parts
    • The first part is a program (spider) which collects data on the Web
    • As the spider collects data, the second part of the search engine (indexor) organizes the data into a large database
    • When you use a search engine, you interact with the third part – the search engine software
      • This software searches the indexed data, pulling ouut relevant information according to your search
    • The resulting list appears in your Web browser as a list of hits or sites that match your search
subject directories
Subject Directories
  • A guide to the Internet organized by topics and subtopics
    • Yahoo
subject directories93
Subject Directories
  • With a subject directory, you do not use keywords to search the Web
  • After selecting the main subject from the directory, you narrow your search by successively clicking on subfolders that match your search until you have reached the appropriate information
evaluating web sites for research
Evaluating Web Sites For research
  • Who is the author of the article or Web site sponsor?
    • Some sites include a page with information about the author or the site’s sponsor
    • If the author is well known or the site is published by a reputable news source, you can feel more confident using it as a source
evaluating web sites for research95
Evaluating Web Sites For research
  • What audience is the site geared toward?
    • Ensure that the content, tone, and style of the site match your needs
  • Is the site biased?
    • The purpose of many Web sites is to sell you a product or service, or to persuade rather than inform
    • Look for sites that offer several sets of facts or consider opinions from several sources
evaluating web sites for research96
Evaluating Web Sites For research
  • Is the information current?
    • Material can last a long time on the Web
    • Look for a date on information to make sure it is current
  • Are links available and appropriate?
    • Check out the links provided on the site to determine whether they are still working and appropriate for your needs
the internet the basics
The Internet: The Basics
  • Origin of the Internet
  • The Internet vs. the Web
  • Clients and servers
  • Connecting to the Internet
client and server
Client and Server
  • Computers connected to the Internet communicate with each other
  • A computer connected to the Internet acts in one of two ways
    • A client
      • A computer that asks for data
    • A Server
      • A computers that receives the request and returns the data to the client
  • Client/Server network
client and server99
Client and Server
  • Client computer:
    • Users connect to the Internet
    • Request data and Web pages
  • Server computers:
    • Store Web pages and data
    • Return the requested data to the client

Server

Client

computers talk to each other
Computers Talk to Each Other
  • Your computer, acting as a client computer, makes a request through its Web browser for information
  • Your request travels from your computer to local and regional companies that provide access to intermediary Internet pathways
computers talk to each other101
Computers Talk to Each Other
  • The regional Internet access company routes the request to a national company that provides access to the main Internet pathway, the Internet backbone
  • The national company routes the request along the Internet backbone and on through more local and regional Internet access companies to reach the host (destination) server computer
computers talk to each other102
Computers Talk to Each Other
  • The host server computer receives the request and sends the appropriate data back through the Internet pathways to your client computer
  • Once the data reaches your computer, your Web browser interprets and displays it on your monitor
how does data get sent to the correct computer
How Does Data Get Sent to the Correct Computer
  • Each time you connect to the Internet, your computer is assigned a unique identification number
    • Internet Protocol (IP) Address
    • A set of four numbers separated by dots
  • Each Website is assigned an IP address that uniquely identifies it
how does data get sent to the correct computer104
How Does Data Get Sent to the Correct Computer
  • Because the long strings of numbers that make up IP addresses are difficult to remember, Web sites are given text versions of their IP addresses
  • When you type a Web site address into your browser window, your computer (with its own unique IP address) looks for the requested site’s IP address.
  • Data is exchanged from that Web site’s server computer and your computer using these unique IP addresses
connecting to the internet
Connecting to the Internet
  • To take advantage of the resources the Internet offers, you need a means to connect your computer to it
  • Several options are available to the homeowner
    • Dial-up connection
    • Broadband connections
      • Cable
      • Satellite
      • DSL
connecting to the internet106
Connecting to the Internet
  • Dial-up connection:
    • Uses standard telephone line
    • Least costly connection
    • Requires a modem
      • Converts analog and digital signals
    • Slowest connection speed (56Kbps)
connecting to the internet107
Connecting to the Internet
  • Dial-Up Connection
    • The least costly method of connecting to the Internet
    • Uses a standard phone line and a dial-up modem
      • A device that converts (modulates) the digital signals the computer understands to the analog signals that can travel over phone lines
      • The computer on the other end also must have a modem to translate (demodulate) the received signal back to a digital signal that the receiving computer can understand
connecting to the internet108
Connecting to the Internet
  • Dial-Up Connection
    • Modern desktops computers generally come with internal modems
    • Laptops use either internal modems or PC cards that are inserted into a special slot on the laptop
    • Even at 56 Kbps, moving through the Internet with a dial-up connection can be a slow and frustrating experience
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Connecting to the Internet
  • Dial-Up Connection
    • Web pages can take a long time to load, especially if they contain multimedia
    • With dial-up when you are on the Internet, you tie up your phone line
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Connecting to the Internet
  • Broadband Connections
    • Two leading broadband home Internet connection technologies exist
      • Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL)
        • Uses telephone lines to connect to the Internet
        • Allows phone and data transmission to share the same line
        • Phone lines are made of twisted copper wires (twisted-pair wiring)
          • Three wires
        • One line is used for voice data
        • DSL uses the remaining two lines to send and receive data separately, at much higher frequencies
broadband connections
Broadband Connections
  • Digital Subscriber Lines
    • Faster than dial-up
      • Upload (300Kbps – 1.5Mbps)
      • Download (1Mbps – 1.5Mbps)
    • Requires special DSL modem
      • A device that connects the computer data to the DSL line and then separates thetypes of signals into voiceand data signalsso that they can travel on the right lines on the twisted pair wiring

DSL modem

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Broadband Connections
  • Types of Digital Subscriber Lines
    • Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)
      • The more typical DSL transmissions download (receive) data from the Internet faster than they upload (send) data
    • Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL)
      • Upload and download data at the same speed
        • Design and update Web sites
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Broadband Connections
  • Advantages of Digital Subscriber Lines
    • With data transfer rates that reach 1.5 Mbps, DSL beats the slow speeds of dial-up
    • With DSL you can connect to the Internet without tying up your phone line
    • Unlike cable and satellite, DSL service does not share the line with other network users in your area
      • In times of peak Internet usage, DSL speed is not affected
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Broadband Connections
  • Advantages of Digital Subscriber Lines
    • Bad weather does not affect DSL service
    • DSL service is less susceptible to the radio frequency interference that hinders cable
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Broadband Connections
  • Disadvantages of Digital Subscriber Lines
    • Service is not available in all areas
    • The quality and effectiveness of your service depends on your proximity to a phone company central office (CO)
      • Where the receiving DSL modem is located
      • You must be within approximately three miles of a CO
      • The signal quality and speed weaken drastically beyond 18,000 feet
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Broadband Connections
  • Cable:
    • Uses TV coaxial cable
    • Fast connection speed (500Kbps – 4Mbps)
    • Speed depends on number of users
    • Not available in all areas
    • Requires a cable modem

Coaxial cable

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Broadband Connections
  • Cable
    • Uses coaxial cable
      • A one-way service in which the cable company feeds your television programming service
    • In order to bring two-way Internet service to homes, cable companies must upgrade their networks for two-way data transmission capabilities and with fiber-optic lines, which transmit data at close to the speed of light along glass or plastic fiber-optic fibers or wires
    • Because data sent through fiber-optic lines is transmitted at the speed of light, transmission speeds are much faster than conventional wire technologies
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Broadband Connections
  • Cable
    • Requires a cable modem connected to an expansion card, a network interface card (NIC) located inside your system unit
    • The cable modem works to translate the cable signal into digital data and back again
    • Because the cable TV signal and Internet data can share the same line, you can watch cable TV and be on the Internet at the same time
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Broadband Connections
  • Advantages of Cable
    • Slightly better speed that a DSL connection
      • With cable Internet, you can receive data at speeds up to 6 Mbps and send data at approximately 500 Kbps
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Broadband Connections
  • Disadvantages of Cable
    • Because you share your cable Internet connection with your neighbors, you may experience periodic decreases in connection speeds during peak usage times
satellite connections
Satellite Connections
  • Uses a satellite dish and coaxial cable
    • Download speed 500 kbps
    • Upload speed 100 kbps
    • Signal is affected by location and weather
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Satellite Connections
  • Advantages of Satellite
    • Anyone in the United States can receive satellite service
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Satellite Connections
  • Disadvantages of Satellite
    • The initial equipment investment is high
    • It takes longer for data to be transferred with satellite broadband than with cable of DSL
    • Unfavorable weather conditions can block or interfere with the satellite transmission signal
    • If tall objects obstruct your exposure, your signal may be blocked
choosing an isp
Choosing an ISP
  • Factors to consider:
    • Customer service
    • Local access numbers
    • E-mail options
    • Cost
    • Trial period
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Choosing an ISP
  • After you have chosen the method by which you will connect to the Internet, you need a way to access the Internet
  • Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
    • National, regional, or local companies that connect individuals, groups, and other companies to the Internet
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Choosing an ISP
  • The Internet is a network of networks
  • The central component of the Internet network is the Internet Backbone
  • The Internet backbone is the main pathway of high-speed communications lines through which all Internet traffic flows
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Choosing an ISP
  • Large communications companies, such as AT&T, Qwest, and Sprint, are backbone providers that control access to the main lines of the Internet backbone
  • These backbone providers supply Internet access to ISPs, which, in turn, supply access to other users
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Choosing an ISP
  • If you have a broadband connection, your broadband provider is your ISP
  • If you’re accessing the Internet from a dial-up connection, you need to determine which ISPs are available in your area
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Choosing an ISP
  • Factors to consider in choosing an ISP
    • How much does the ISP cost for monthly Internet access and what other services does it supply
    • Does the ISP have a local access number so that you can avoid long-distance phone charges while you use the Internet
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Choosing an ISP
  • Factors to consider in choosing an ISP
    • If you travel a lot, does the ISP have local access in the areas where you’ll be traveling or an available toll-free number to connect to
    • Does the ISP allow you to access your e-mail by using the Web
    • Will you need more than one e-mail account
      • How many accounts does the ISP provide
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Choosing an ISP
  • Factors to consider in choosing an ISP
    • How are services paid for, and how are renewals handled
      • Does the ISP automatically charge your credit card each month
    • Are you planning on having a Web site? If so, does the ISP have space for your Web site on its server
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Choosing an ISP
  • Factors to consider in choosing an ISP
    • Is there a trial period
      • Trial periods enable you to check out availability during peak and off-peak hours before committing to the ISP long-term
    • How is the ISP’s customer service
      • The best ISPs provide customer service that is accessible by phone and the Web
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Choosing an ISP
  • Factors to consider in choosing an ISP
    • Changing your ISP can be both time-consuming and inconvenient
      • You may need to change connections
      • If your e-mail address changes, you’ll need to notify everyone
internet service providers
ISP:

Internet service provider

Provide user access to the Internet

National, regional, or local companies

OSP:

Online service provider

Provide online proprietary content as well as Internet access

AOL, CompuServe, MSN

Internet Service Providers
the origin of the internet
The Origin of the Internet
  • The Internet was created to respond to two concerns
    • To establish a safe form of military communications
    • To create a means by which all computers could communicate
  • The result of this research was the creation of packet-switching and routers
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The Origin of the Internet
  • By taking data messages and breaking them into small packets, each packet could be addressed and sent individually to a destination through a series of routers
  • The routers, like robot traffic cops, would send each packet along the optimum path to the next router, depending on traffic and availability
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The Origin of the Internet
  • The modern Internet evolved from an early “internetworking” project called the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET)
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The Origin of the Internet
  • Funded by the U.S. government for the military in the late 1960s, ARPANET began as a four-node network involving
    • UCLA
    • Stanford Research Institute
    • The University of California at Santa Barbara
    • The University of Utah at Salt Lake City
  • The first real communication occurred in late 1969 between the computer at Stanford and the computer at UCLA
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The Origin of the Internet
  • Although the System crashed after the third letter was transmitted, it was the beginning of a revolution that has grown into millions of computers connected to the Internet today
the internet vs the web
The Internet vs. The Web
  • Internet – part of the system that is primarily hardware infrastructure (telecommunications, routers, servers, disk drives, etcetera)
  • Web – part of the system that contains intellectual property in many multimedia formats (test files, graphic files, sound files, video files, etc.)

INTERNET

WWW

the web
The Web
  • The Web is the means we use to access information over the Internet
  • What distinguishes the Web from the rest of the Internet is its use of
    • common communication protocols such as TCP/IP and special languages such as HyperText Markup Language (HTML). These protocols enable different computers to talk to each other and display information in compatible forms
    • special links (hyperlinks) that enable users to jump from one place to another on the Web
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The Web
  • The Web was invented many years after the Internet in 1989 by Tim Berners-Lee, a physicist at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) who wanted a method for linking his research documents so that other researchers could access them
  • In conjunction with Robert Cailliau, Berners-Lee developed the basic architecture of the web and created the first Web browser
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The Web
  • The original browser could handle only text and was usable only on computers running the NeXT operating system which limited its usage
  • In 1993, National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) released the Mosaic browser for use on the Macintosh and Windows operating system
  • Mosaic could display graphics as well as text
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The Web
  • As the popularity of this browser grew, Marc Andreesen, the leader of the Mosaic development team, formed a company called Mosaic Communications Corporation with Jim Clark
  • Mosaic Communications Corporation was later renamed Netscape Communications
  • In December, 1994 Netscape Communications released the Netscape browser (Netscape Navigator 1.0)Developers of Mosaic release Netscape (1994)
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The Web
  • The launch of Netscape heralded the beginning of the web’s monumental growth
future of the internet
Future of the Internet
  • Large Scale Networking (LSN):
    • Research and development of cutting-edge networking and wireless technologies
  • Internet2:
    • Project sponsored by universities, government, and industry to develop new Internet technologies
    • Internet2 backbone supports transmission speeds of 9.6 Gbps
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Future of the Internet
  • The Internet of the future will
    • Have more bandwidth
    • Will offer increased services
    • Reach more of the world’s population than it does today
  • Because of the prevalence of wireless technologies, the Internet will be more accessible and we will become more dependent on it
  • With the increase of commerce and communication activities dominating the Internet, the concern is that there will be no bandwidth left for one of the Internet’s original purposes – The exchange of scientific and academic research
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Future of the Internet
  • Two major projects currently under way in the U.S. to develop advanced technologies for the Internet are
    • The large Scale Networking (LSN) programming
    • Internet2
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Future of the Internet
  • Large Scale Networking (LSN) Program
    • To fund research and development of cutting-edge networking and wireless technologies
    • To increase the speed of networks
  • Internet2
    • An ongoing project sponsored by more than 200 universities (with government and industry partners) to develop new Internet technologies and disseminate them as rapidly as possible to the rest of the Internet community
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Future of the Internet
  • The Internet2 backbone
    • Supports extremely high-speed communications
      • Up to 9.6 gigabits per second (Gbps)
    • Provides an excellent testing area for new data transmission technologies
  • It is hoped that the Internet2 will solve the major problem plaguing the current Internet
    • Lack of bandwidth
  • Once the Internet2 is fully integrated with the current Internet, greater volumes of information should flow more smoothly
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Future of the Internet
  • In the future, you can expect to use the Internet to assist you with many day-to-day tasks that you normally do manually
  • Internet-enabled appliances and household systems are now available that allow your home virtually to run itself
    • Refrigerators can monitor their contents and go online to order more diet soda when they detect that the supply is getting low
    • Internet heating and cooling systems can monitor weather forecasts and order fuel deliveries when supplies run low or bad weather is expected
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Future of the Internet
  • These appliances will become more widespread as the price of equipment drops
  • The uses for the Internet are limited only by our imaginations and the current constraints of technology
chapter 3 summary question 1
Chapter 3 Summary Question 1
  • How can I communicate through the Internet?
chapter 3 summary question 2
Chapter 3 Summary Question 2
  • What are the various kinds of Multimedia?
chapter 3 summary question 3
Chapter 3 Summary Question 3
  • What is e-commerce?
chapter 3 summary question 5
Chapter 3 Summary Question 5
  • What is a Web browser?
chapter 3 summary question 6
Chapter 3 Summary Question 6
  • What is a URL and what are its parts?
chapter 3 summary question 7
Chapter 3 Summary Question 7
  • How can I use hyperlinks and other tools to get around the Web?
chapter 3 summary question 8
Chapter 3 Summary Question 8
  • How do I search the Internet using search engines and subject directories?
chapter 3 summary question 9
Chapter 3 Summary Question 9
  • How does data travel on the Internet?
chapter 3 summary question 10
Chapter 3 Summary Question 10
  • What are my options for connecting to the Internet?
chapter 3 summary question 11
Chapter 3 Summary Question 11
  • How do I choose an Internet service provider?
chapter 3 summary question 12
Chapter 3 Summary Question 12
  • What is the origin of the Internet?
chapter 3 summary question 13
Chapter 3 Summary Question 13
  • What does the Internet of the future look like?