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Technology In Action

Technology In Action

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Technology In Action

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  1. Technology In Action

  2. Midterm Exam Study Guide • The Exam • Sample Exam Questions • Review • Lab Exercises 3 and 4 • Technology in Focuses 3 and 4 • Sound-bytes 6 to 10 • Chapters 6 to 10

  3. The Midterm Exam • When • Thursday, April 3, 2008 • 5:30 – 6:45pm • MSB 115 • 15 % of your final grade • Covers • Chapters 6 to 10 • Sound-bytes 6 to 10 • Technology in Focus 3 and 4 • Lab exercises 3 and 4 • This is an open-notes exam. All in-class hand-outs are allowed. • Writing on your notes is ok! • You may not use a textbook, a computer, or any electronic device.

  4. Sample Exam Questions 1 Multiple-choice Question • ____________ storage refers to storage that loses its data when the power is turned off. A. Permanent B. Volatile C. Virtual D. Nonvolatile Answer: B Reference: Chapter 6 - Evaluating RAM

  5. Sample Exam Questions 2 True/false Question • Laptop computers are also known as tablet computers • Answer: False (notebook computers) • Reference: Chapter 8 - Notebooks

  6. Sample Exam Questions 3 Matching Question • Match the following acronyms to their descriptions : A. SATA B. ALU C. VRAM D. IrDA E. DIMM • _____ type of memory module • _____ memory generally used for graphics display • _____ port for wireless data transmission • _____ type of hard disk drive interface • _____ CPU component that performs mathematical operations • Answer: E, C, D, A, B • Reference: Chapter 6

  7. Lab Exercises • Lab exercise 3 • Creating a basic web page • Investigating HTML • Terms related to the Internet and HTML • Lab exercise 4 • Using a word processing software (Microsoft Word) • Investigating how file compression works • Terms related to mass storage devices and memory

  8. Technology in Focuses • Technology in Focus 3: Computing Alternatives • Open-source software • Application software alternatives – OpenOffice • Operating alternatives – Linux • Hardware alternatives – MAC, DIY

  9. Technology in Focuses • Technology in Focus 4: Protecting Your Computer and Backing up Your Data • Physically protecting your computer • Keeping cell phones and PDAs safe • Protecting your computer from unauthorized access • Access privileges and password protection • Updating your software • Backing up your data

  10. Sound-bytes • Hard Disk Anatomy Interactive • Installing a Home Network • Tablet and Notebook Tour • Memory Hierarchy Interactive • Programming for End Users: Macros

  11. Technology In Action Chapter 6 Evaluating Your System: Understanding and Assessing Hardware

  12. Chapter Topics • To buy or upgrade? • Evaluating your system: • CPU • RAM • Storage devices • Video output • Sound systems • Computer ports • System reliability

  13. Chapter 6 Summary Questions • How can I determine whether I should upgrade my existing computer or buy a new one? • You need to conduct a system evaluationby look at computer’s subsystems • CPU • Memory • The storage subsystem • The video subsystem • The audio subsystem • Your computer’s ports • Then, determine if it’s economically practical to upgrade or buy a new one

  14. Chapter 6 Summary Questions • What does the CPU do and how can I evaluate its performance? • Processes instructions, performs calculations, manages the flow of information through a computer system • To evaluate its performance • Look at the clock speed • The ability to process multimedia instructions and handle audio and video processing commands • The power consumption • Mulitcore capability option • Usually a newer generation CPU have a lot of improvement over the previous generation

  15. Chapter 6 Summary Questions • How does memory work and how can I evaluate how much memory I need? • Random access memory (RAM)is your computer’s temporary storage space • A short-term memory--it remembers everything that the computer needs to process the data into information, such as inputted data and software instructions, but only while the computer is on • To determine how much RAM is needed you must look at the memory requirements of each program you’ll run and add them up

  16. Chapter 6 Summary Questions • What are the computer’s main storage devices and how can I evaluate whether they match my needs? • Hard disks (nonvolatile storage) are devices for permanent storage of instructions and data when the computer is powered off • The hard disk should have enough space for all installed programs ,data, and virtual memory

  17. Chapter 6 Summary Questions • What components affect the output of video and how can I evaluate whether they are meeting my needs? • How video is displayed depends on two components • Video card and monitor • A more powerful card is required if you plan to use your computer for graphics-intense games and multimedia. • The monitor size, resolution, refresh rate, and color reproduction are all affect how well the monitor performs.

  18. Chapter 6 Summary Questions • What components affect the quality of sound and how can I evaluate whether they are meeting my needs? • Your computer’s sound depends on your speakers and a sound card • An upgrade sound card enables the computer to produce 3-D or surround sound and additional ports for audio equipments

  19. Chapter 6 Summary Questions • What are the ports available on desktop computers and how can I determine what ports I need? • A port is an interface through which peripheral devices are connected to your computer • There are many kinds of ports available such as serial, parallel, USB, Firewire, Ethernet, S-Video, DVI, Bluetooth, IrDA, MIDI, HDMI, and eSATA

  20. Chapter 6 Summary Questions • How can I ensure the reliability of my system? • There are several procedures you can follow to ensure your system performs reliably • Clean out your Startup folder • Make sure you delete only programs you know for sure are unnecessary • Clear out unnecessary files to free-up hard drive space • Run an antispyware/antivirus program as well as an anti-adware program • Run the Disk Defragmenter utility once in a while to compact your hard drive

  21. Technology In Action Chapter 7 Networking and Security: Connecting Computers and Keeping Them Safe from Hackers and Viruses

  22. Chapter Topics • Networking fundamentals • Network architecture • Network components • Peer-to-peer networks • Computer threats • Computer safeguards • Computer viruses

  23. Chapter 7 Summary Questions • What is a network and what are the advantages of setting one up? • A computer network is simply two or more computers connected together via software and hardware so they can communicate • The main functions for most networks • to facilitate information sharing • allow users to share peripherals and Internet connectivity

  24. Chapter 7 Summary Questions • What is the difference between a client/server network and a peer-to-peer network? • Network architectures are classified according to the way in which they are controlled and the distance between their nodes • There are two main ways a network can be controlled • A peer-to-peer network is the most common example of a locally controlled network • The most common type of centrally controlled network is a client/server network

  25. Chapter 7 Summary Questions • What are the main components of every network? • In order to move data from one computer to another, four components are required • Transmission media • Network adapters that translate the computer’s signal to a network message • Navigation devices that decide how data traffic comes and goes • Network software that allows the software to run

  26. Chapter 7 Summary Questions • What are the most common home networks? • Ethernet and wireless network • The major difference in these networks is the transmission media by which the nodes are connected

  27. Chapter 7 Summary Questions • What are power-line networks? • Power-line networks use the existing electrical wiring in your home to connect the nodes in the network • Any electrical outlet provides a network connection • The original power line networks had a maximum data transfer rate of 14 Mbps • New standards provide for data transfer rates approaching 200 Mbps

  28. Chapter 7 Summary Questions • What are phoneline networks? • Phoneline networks move data through the network using conventional phone lines rather than power lines • Any phone jack in a house provides a network connection • Phoneline networks have a maximum data transfer rate of 10 Mbps

  29. Chapter 7 Summary Questions • What are Ethernet networks? • Ethernet networks use the Ethernet protocol as the means by which the nodes on the network communicate • Requires that you install an adapter to each computer or peripheral you want to connect to the network • Most computers come with Ethernet adapters preinstalled as network interface cards (NICs)

  30. Chapter 7 Summary Questions • What are wireless networks? • A wireless network uses radio waves instead of wires or cables as its transmission media • Each node on a wireless network requires a wireless network adapter • These adapters are either built-in or inserted an added-on card into an expansion slot or an open USB port

  31. Chapter 7 Summary Questions • How can hackers attack a network and what harm can they cause? • A hacker is defined as anyone who breaks into a computer system (whether an individual computer or a network) unlawfully • A hacker can use software to break into a computer connected to the Internet • Once gaining access to the computer, the hacker can steal, damage or destroy information, or use the computer to attack other computers

  32. Chapter 7 Summary Questions • How are home wireless networks vulnerable? • Wireless network range doesn’t stop at the property line • A hacker can intercept and decode information from your transmissions that may allow him to bypass your firewall • Others may steal your bandwidth and crimes can be committed through your network

  33. Chapter 7 Summary Questions • What is a firewall and how does it keep my computer safe from hackers? • Firewalls are software programs or hardware devices designed to keep computers safe from hackers • By using a firewall, you can close off open logical ports to invaders and potentially make your computer invisible to other computers on the Internet

  34. Chapter 7 Summary Questions • From which types of viruses do I need to protect my computer? • Boot-sector viruses • Logic bombs • Time bombs • Worms • Script viruses • Macro viruses • E-mail viruses • Encryption viruses • Trojan Horses

  35. Chapter 7 Summary Questions • What can I do to protect my computer from viruses? • Use your common sense • Install antivirus software

  36. Technology In Action Chapter 8 Mobile Computing: Keeping Your Data on Hand

  37. Topics • Advantages and limitations of mobile computing • Mobile computing devices • Pagers, cell phones, PDAs, and portable media players • Synchronizing mobile devices with computers • Tablet PCs • Notebooks

  38. Chapter 8 Summary Questions • What are the advantages and limitations of mobile computing? • Advantages • Convenience • Boost productivity • Communicate with others anywhere • Access to electronic information • Limitations • Expensive • Short battery life • Small screen display • Slow Internet speed

  39. Chapter 8 Summary Questions • What are the various mobile computing devices? • Paging devices • Cell phones • MP3 players • Personal digital assistants (PDAs) • Tablet PCs • Laptops

  40. Chapter 8 Summary Questions • What can pagers do? • A paging device (pager) is a small wireless device that allows you to receive and sometimes send numeric (and sometimes text) messages on a small display screen

  41. Chapter 8 Summary Questions • How do cell phone components resemble a traditional computer and how do cell phones work? • Cell phones have the same components as a computer: a processor, memory, and input and output devices • When you speak to the phone • Sound enters as a sound wave • Analog sound waves, then, are converted to digital signals • The compressed digital signals are transmitted to the cellular network then to the phone

  42. Chapter 8 Summary Questions • What can I carry in a portable media player and how does it store data? • Portable media players (PMPs) are small portable devices (such as an iPod) that enable playing of MP3 files anywhere • Some devices can play video files • Some MP3 players allow you to add additional removable flash memory cards

  43. Chapter 8 Summary Questions • For what can I use a PDA and what internal components and features does it have? • A personal digital assistant (PDA) is a small device that allows you to carry digital information • Often called palm computers or handhelds • PDAs are about the size of your hand • Most PDAs come with a standard collection of software such as a to-do list, contacts manager, calendar, and software applications

  44. Chapter 8 Summary Questions • How can I synchronize my mobile devices with my desktop computer? • PDA files can be transferred to a desktop using • Flash card readers • Cradles • Wireless transfers: • IrDA • Bluetooth

  45. Chapter 8 Summary Questions • What is a tablet PC? • A tablet PC is a portable computer that is lightweight, features advanced handwriting recognition, and can be rotated into a clipboard style • Its monitor can be used either in a traditional laptop mode or in “tablet mode,” much like an electronic clipboard • Tablet PCs also can be connected to a full-size keyboard and monitor

  46. Chapter 8 Summary Questions • How powerful are notebooks and how do they compare to desktop computers? • The most powerful mobile computing solution is a notebookcomputer • Comparing to desktop computers, notebooks are usually less powerful than the desktops

  47. Technology in Action Chapter 9 Behind the Scenes: A Closer Look at System Hardware

  48. Chapter Topics • Computer switches • Binary number system • Inside the CPU • Cache memory • Types of RAM • Computer buses • Creating faster CPUs

  49. Chapter 9 Summary Questions • What is a switch and how does it work in a computer? • Electronicswitches are devices inside the computer that can be flipped between these two states: 1 or 0, on or off • Modern computers understand only two states of existence: on and off • Computers represent these two possibilities (or states) using the digits 1 and 0

  50. Chapter 9 Summary Questions • What is the binary number system and what role does it play in computer system? • Computers describe a number as powers of 2 because each switch can be in one of two positions: on or off • This numbering system is referred to as the binary number system • To process data into information, computers need to work in binary language