Tools of a healthy diet
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Tools of a Healthy Diet. Learning Objectives. Explain the purpose of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) and its components Compare the Daily Values to the Dietary Reference Intakes and explain how they are used on Nutrition Facts panels.

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Learning objectives
Learning Objectives

  • Explain the purpose of the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) and its components

  • Compare the Daily Values to the Dietary Reference Intakes and explain how they are used on Nutrition Facts panels.

  • Describe Nutrition Facts panels and the claims permitted on food packages.

  • Describe the uses and limitations of the data in nutrient databases.

Learning objectives1
Learning Objectives

  • Discuss the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the diseases they are designed to prevent or minimize.

  • Discuss the MyPyramid food groupings and plan a diet using this tool.

  • Develop a healthy eating plan based on the concepts of variety, balance, moderation, nutrient density, and energy density.

Dietary reference intakes dris
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs)

  • Estimated Average Requirements (EARs)

  • Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs)

  • Adequate Intakes (AIs)

  • Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs)

  • Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs)

  • Complementary to DRIs:

    • Adequate Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs)

Ears and rdas


17 nutrients that have functional markers

Meets needs for 50% population group


Based on EARs

Meet 97-98% population group

Prevent deficiency and chronic disease

EARs and RDAs

Ais and uls


Insufficient data for an EAR

Ideally meets more than RDA


Maximum daily intake

Based on nutrient intake from all sources

Exceptions: niacin, magnesium, zinc and nickel are only nonfood sources

AIs and ULs

Eers and amdrs


Average daily caloric need for each life-stage group


Range of intake, as a percentage of energy

Carbohydrate, Fat, Protein and Essential amino acids

EERs and AMDRs

Nutrient density
Nutrient Density

  • Divide the amount of the nutrient per serving by the recommended amount

  • Divide the calories in a serving by daily caloric need

  • Compare the two

  • Nutrient dense if provides a greater contribution to nutrient need than calorie need

  • “Empty calorie foods”

Daily values dvs
Daily Values (DVs)

  • Nutrition standards for food labels

  • Standards set for persons over 4 years old

    • Exceptions: infants, toddlers, pregnancy and lactation

  • Based on:

    • Reference daily intakes (RDIs) and

    • Daily reference values (DRVs)

Rdis and drvs


Vitamins and Minerals

Use highest value

Based on 1968 RDA


Energy nutrients-carbohydrates, protein and fat

Based on a 2,000 calorie diet

Cholesterol, sodium and potassium

Do not vary with calorie intake

RDIs and DRVs

Nutrition facts panel
Nutrition Facts Panel

  • Standardized serving size

    • Based on typical American serving sizes

  • Must list the following nutrients:

    • Total calories, calories from fat, total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, fiber, sugars, protein, Vitamin A and C, calcium and iron

    • Fortified or nutrients mentioned in health claims must also be included.

Food label claims
Food Label Claims

  • Nutrient Content Claims

    • Closely regulated by FDA

  • Health Claims

    • Closely regulated by FDA

  • Preliminary Health Claims

    • Regulated but limited scientific evidence

  • Structure/Function Claims

    • Not FDA approved

  • Front-of-Package Claims

Factors affecting nutrient composition of foods
Factors Affecting Nutrient Composition of Foods

  • Farming conditions

  • Maturity and ripeness of plants

  • Food processing

  • Shipping conditions

  • Storage time

  • Cooking processes

Energy density
Energy Density

  • Comparison of a food’s caloric content per gram weight of the food

  • High energy density foods

    • Graham crackers, potato chips, peanuts, bacon

  • Low energy density foods

    • Lettuce, strawberries, grapefruit, carrots, vegetable soup, skim milk

Dietary guidelines for americans
Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • Balance Calories to manage weight

    • Physical Activity

  • Foods & food components to reduce

    • Sodium

    • Fats (saturated, trans, cholesterol)

    • Solid fats and added sugars

    • Refined grains

    • Alcoholic Beverages

Dietary guidelines for americans1
Dietary Guidelines for Americans

  • Foods and food components to increase

    • Vegetables and fruits

    • Whole grains

    • Fat-free or low-fat dairy

    • Variety of protein and seafood

    • Oils to replace solid fats

    • Foods with more potassium dietary fiber, calcium, vitamin D

  • Building healthy eating patterns

    • Food safety


  • Puts Dietary Guidelines into action

  • 2011 revision of MyPyramid

  • Emphasizes fruit, vegetable, grain, protein, and dairy food groups