Iron Deficiency Anemia The #1 nutritional deficiency in the world Olivia Wagner, Brittany Wrasman, Jennifer Werring
What is Iron? • Mineral • Part of many enzymes and used in many cell functions • Part of the protein hemoglobin • Hemoglobin is a protein inside red blood cells that contain iron and transport oxygen
Approximately 3.5 million Americans are affected by anemiaIt is the most common disorder of the blood
What does Iron do? • Carries oxygen from our lungs throughout our bodies • Helps muscles store and use oxygen
When we don’t have enough Iron.. • Normal infant motor function and mental function can be delayed • During pregnancy, can increase risk of preterm babies • Can cause fatigue • May affect memory
Stages leading to Anemia • FIRST: An insufficient supply of iron. • This causes iron stores in the bone marrow to be depleted. This stage generally has no symptoms. • SECOND: Iron deficiencies develop and begin to affect hemoglobin production. (Tests will show low hemoglobin and hematocrit levels.) • THIRD: Hemoglobin production declines to the point where anemia develops.
Signs and Symptoms • Fatigue • Decreased performance • Slow cognitive and social development during childhood • Difficulty maintaining body temperature • Decreased immune function • Increased susceptibility to infection • Glossitis
1. Increased Iron Needs • Women who are pregnant • Supplement recommended • Young growing children • People who have lost a significant amount of blood • People who have donated blood
2. Decreased or deficient red blood cell production • Sickle cell anemia • an inherited disorder which causes the red blood cells to have a crescent shape. The red blood cells break down rapidly, before sufficient oxygen and nutrients can reach vital organs.
3. Excessive Red Blood Cell Destruction • Hemolysis: anemia caused by excessive red blood cell destruction • If the bone marrow cannot keep up with the needed red cell production, the red blood cell count will start to fall, leading to hemolysis
Iron Deficiency Globally 2 billion people over 30% of the worlds population are anemic
In developing countries.. Every second pregnant woman and about 40% of pre-school children are estimated to be anemic • Anemia is frequented by wide spread of infectious disease • Malaria • HIV/AIDS • Hookworm infestation • Schistosomiasis • Tuberculosis
In developing countries… Iron deficiency reduces the work capacity of individuals and entire populations Leading to.. Economic consequences Obstacles to national development
How can you detect a deficiency? • Complete blood count • To look at the number and volume of the red blood cells • Hematocrit test • Measures the percentage of the red blood cells in the body by volume • Hemoglobin test • Measures the amount of hemoglobin which is a protein that carries oxygen
Absorption Inhibitors • Polyphenols and Phytates • coffee and tea • lessen the absorption of iron in plant foods by up to 70 percent. • vegetarian diet: avoid drinking coffee or tea within an hour-and-a-half of eating iron-rich foods.
Resources http://www.cdc.gov/nutrition/everyone/basics/vitamins/iron.html http://www.who.int/nutrition/topics/ida/en/index.html http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/158800.php
Bread Pudding With Crème Anglaise whole Grain Bread (I), egg yolks (I) (C) , raisins (I) Mulled Cranberry Orange Cider orange slices, cranberry Whole Grain Morning Glory Muffins coconut (I), whole wheat flour (I), raisins (I), carrots (C), walnuts (I) Citrus Fruit Salad graperfruit, oranges, pineapple, grapefruit juice (C) Tuscan White Bean and Garlic Soup cannellini beans (I) Roasted Sweet Potatoes with Honey and Cinnamon Sweet potatoes (I)(C) Steak and Shrimp Kabobs with Madeira Prune Sauce tomato paste (C) , beef (I), shrimp (I), prunes Roasted Brussels Sprouts brussels sprouts (I)(C) Risotto with Tuscan Kale and Toasted Pumpkins seeds kale (C)(I), rice (I), pumpkin seeds (I) Spinach Salad With Pomegranate Vinaigrette spinach (I), fig (I), almonds (I), dried cranberries (C)(I), pomegranate juice (C)