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Bell Ringer 10/28. Please get out your Irony Examples so that we can start sharing them with the class. Periods 1, 2, 7, & 9. Bell Ringer 10/28. Please get out your Arthur Miller Obituary and Discussion Questions so that we can begin going over the answers. Period 3. Bell Ringer 10/28.

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bell ringer 10 28
Bell Ringer 10/28
  • Please get out your Irony Examples so that we can start sharing them with the class.
    • Periods 1, 2, 7, & 9
bell ringer 10 281
Bell Ringer 10/28
  • Please get out your Arthur Miller Obituary and Discussion Questions so that we can begin going over the answers.
    • Period 3
bell ringer 10 282
Bell Ringer 10/28
  • Please get out your Foils predictions so that we can discuss them.
    • Period 4
english iii
English III
  • EQ: How did Arthur Miller’s point of view and purpose shape the content and style of Death of a Salesman?
  • Agenda
    • Bell Ringer/Discussion
    • EQ/Agenda
    • Arthur Miller’s Obituary
      • Discussion Questions
    • Irony (definitions and examples)
    • Foils (definitions and activity)
    • Tragedy Guided Notes
      • Pds. 1 & 4: Tragedy and the Common Man
historical context character intro
Historical Context/Character Intro
  • With a partner, please read the handout on the historical context of Death of a Salesman.
    • How did economics and politics affect the lives of regular American, middle class people?
    • Read the character descriptions:
      • Where do our characters fit into the economic situation of the late 1940’s?
      • Answer these questions with your partner, in full sentences, on one paper for each pairing.
arthur miller s obituary
Arthur Miller’s Obituary
  • In groups of 3:
    • Read through the discussion questions together.
    • Take turns reading Miller’s Obituary.
    • Answer the discussion questions AS YOU READ.
    • Be detailed and support your answers.
  • Situational: an event occurs that contradicts the expectations of the characters, of the reader, or of the audience.
  • Dramatic: there is a contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader or audience knows.
  • Verbal: a word or a phrase is used to suggest the opposite of its usual meaning.
irony activity
Irony Activity
  • Come up with an example for each type of irony:
    • Dramatic, Verbal, Situational
  • Use these characters and situation in your examples:
    • Sarah – 16 year old girl
    • Allen – 16 year old boy
    • Sarah and Allen are taking a road trip in a beat up old car.
  • You do not have to write a whole story, just short parts of a story that illustrate the examples.
    • Situational: Give character expectation and show them getting something opposite
    • Dramatic: We as the reader should know something that the characters don’t know
    • Verbal: the character must say something (use dialogue) but mean the opposite
  • Foil – a character who contrasts with another character (usually the protagonist) in order to highlight particular qualities of the other character.
  • A foil usually either differs drastically or is extremely similar but with a key difference setting them apart.
    • Example: Dumbledore vs. Voldemort
foil activity
Foil Activity
  • Take a look at our character map.
    • Who could we pair together as foils?
      • Think in terms of categories:
        • Bosses
        • Fathers
        • Sons
        • Etc.
      • Predict what comparisons we could make.
  • A serious play in which the chief figures, by some peculiarity of character, pass through a series of misfortunes leading to a final, devastating catastrophe.
    • Usually these characters are of the noble class (kings, queens, dukes, etc.)
  • There are many different kinds and theories of tragedy, starting with the Greeks and Aristotle's definition in The Poetics,
    • "the imitation of an action that is serious and also, as having magnitude, complete in itself...with incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to accomplish its catharsis of such emotions."
  • In the Middle Ages, tragedy merely depicted a decline from happiness to misery because of some flaw or error of judgment.
  • The basic difference between tragedy and comedy and the epic is the "tragic pleasure of pity and fear" the audience feels while watching a tragedy.
    • In order for the tragic hero to arouse these feelings in the audience, he cannot be either all good or all evil but must be someone the audience can identify with (like a round character).
    • However, if he is superior in some way(s), the tragic feeling is intensified.
  • His disastrous end results from a mistaken action, which in turn arises from a tragic flaw or from a tragic error in judgment.
    • Often the tragic flaw is hubris, an excessive pride that causes the hero to ignore a divine warning or to break a moral law.
  • It has been suggested that because the tragic hero's suffering is greater than his offense, the audience feels pity; because the audience members perceive that they could behave similarly, they feel pity.
  • Atragedy is divided into five acts.
    • The first act – introduces the characters in a state of happiness, or at the height of their power, influence, or fame
    • The second act – typically introduces a problem or dilemma
    • The third act – problem reaches a point of crisis in the third act, but which can still be successfully averted
    • the fourth act– the main characters fail to avert or avoid the impending crisis or catastrophe, and the disaster occurs
    • The fifth act – traditionally reveals the grim consequences of that failure or disaster
tragedy and the common man
Tragedy and the Common Man
  • As you read, please answer the following questions:
    • What is Arthur Miller’s definition of Tragedy?
      • Boil it down to one or two sentences.
    • What are the characteristics of a Tragic Hero?
    • What is the Tragic Hero’s Tragic Flaw?
bell ringer 10 283
Bell Ringer 10-28
  • Please get out the story premise/brief outline that you wrote on Friday.
creative writing
Creative Writing
  • EQ: How can we engage and orient the reader when writing short stories?
  • Agenda
    • Bell Ringer/Discussion
    • Agenda/EQ
    • Shape and Structure Notes
      • Revising this weekend’s homework
shape and structure
Shape and Structure
  • Five Questions to Ask before You Start Writing
    • Is this story suitable for me to write?
      • Don’t choose something that is unsuitable for publication or beyond your ability to write.
    • Is this a story or an indulgence?
      • Personal indulgences rarely make good stories. They are too self-centered, often narrow.
    • Is this my story to write?
      • We unconsciously absorb bits of other people’s books and stories.
      • This element of borrowing can’t be avoided because nothing is 100% original.
      • If your idea has already been done, add a twist, change the characters, make it your own.
shape and structure1
Shape and Structure
  • 5 Questions
    • What viewpoint shall I write my story from?
      • One viewpoint can often work better than others (1st or 3rd?)
      • Switch if you run into trouble
        • 1st Person: always brilliant for short-short stories because it is immediate, exciting, and intimate
          • How do you convey what is happening in another room, in another town, to another person?
        • 3rd Person: gives flexibility because you can follow the stories of several characters at the same time
          • The majority of short-short stories use 3rd person
shape and structure2
Shape and Structure
  • 5 Questions
    • What market am I writing this story for?
      • Tailor your story to the audience you are writing for
      • If you write for a particular publication, you’ll need to match the magazine’s required length, style, and content.
shape and structure3
Shape and Structure
    • Intriguing Opening
    • Conflict
    • Crisis
    • Climax
    • Resolution
shape and structure4
Shape and Structure
  • Intriguing Opening
    • Your opening must quickly grab the editor’s attention and the reader’s interest
    • Sometimes referred to as the hook
    • At least 10 different types of opening paragraph
      • The shocker
      • The ominous
      • The weather
      • The atmospheric
      • The historic
      • The romantic
      • The nostalgic
      • The whimsical
      • The sententious
      • The dialogue opening
shape and structure5
Shape and Structure
  • Conflict
    • The story should begin with a conflict of some kind – emotional, physical or verbal.
      • A problem to be solved or a decision to be made
    • Short stories start at a moment of change
      • The initial conflict could be about a change which is about to happen
      • It could be major or minor
    • Should she keep tonight’s date? Should she emigrate to Australia? Should she murder her husband? Should she change the color of her hair?
shape and structure6
Shape and Structure
  • Crisis
    • The story builds to a crisis
      • Helped along by dialogue, flashbacks, movement, changes of pace, a minimum of narrative, sufficient development of characters
    • All these are juggled together until the crisis is reached
    • The crisis can be major or minor
      • Readers identify with minor crises – our lives are full of them.
shape and structure7
Shape and Structure
  • Climax
    • Something has to happen to bring the story to a climax
      • Stories shouldn’t just fizzle out
      • This is what the reader has been waiting for
    • Have the climax in mind all the time you are writing – build towards it.
    • This is the whole point of your story.
shape and structure8
Shape and Structure
  • Resolution
    • The story is then wound up quickly with a satisfactory resolution or twist ending.
    • Short stories are 80% twist endings
      • That doesn’t rule out all the other types of endings – the hopeful, the romantic, the mysterious, the happy, the funny, the comeuppance.
    • Don’t continue writing past the natural ending
shape and structure9
Shape and Structure
  • Think of the short story being shaped like a lop-sided, off-center W.
    • The dips represent a change of pace.
    • Readers need a breather where the pace is slower.
      • Time for brief flashbacks, attempts at a solution, confusion, thoughts, introspection.
    • Note that the second dip of the W is not as low as the first dip.
      • You are building towards the climax and go racing towards the resolution
    • Imaging Pacing as a Racing Car
      • Full throttle for the start, a racing start, accelerate, slow down for the dangerous corners, the full speed with all cylinders firing for an exciting finish.
shape and structure10
Shape and Structure
  • All stories and novels have a shape
    • Be aware of what you’re using; be aware of whether it is workable.
  • Avoid these shapes:
    • The Blob: shapeless, going nowhere with no defined plot or resolution
    • The Tree: too many characters and too many things happening,
shape and structure11
Shape and Structure
  • Good Story Shapes
    • The Wave Shape: this goes on and on like a wave tumbling over rocks with interlocking loops. It has rhythm and style especially if the ending is good.
    • The Juggling Shape: the juggler keeps the balls of action, character and dialogue moving in the air. Occasionally he deftly throws in flashback as an extra ball.
    • The Onion Shape: peeling off the layers until you reach the heart of the story. This also works in reverse, starting from the inside and exploring outwards.
shape and structure12
Shape and Structure
    • The Chinese Box or Russian Dolls shape: similar to the onion. You open a box that’s inside a box and inside is another box and so on. Also works in reverse.
    • The Trumpet Shape: this is a story of tension, two tight lines that suddenly explode outwards. The classic shape for a short-short, one that gives your story the greatest chance of success.
  • Keeping to a shape will help you keep to the right length
  • Keep the objective shape firmly in mind while your imagination roves freely.