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Positivistic versus Naturalistic Inquiry. This is a 100 year old debate Is often correlated to research methodology Is a philosophy on the way we think about human phenomenon & research Can be integrated within methodology, but philosophically they are very different

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positivistic versus naturalistic inquiry
Positivistic versus Naturalistic Inquiry
  • This is a 100 year old debate
  • Is often correlated to research methodology
  • Is a philosophy on the way we think about human phenomenon & research
  • Can be integrated within methodology, but philosophically they are very different
  • Is the foundation for how we design research
slide2

Positivistic Inquiry Naturalistic Inquiry (Constructivism)Quantitative Triangulated QualitativeSolomon DesignBlended DesignsPost-modern -four group design - use quantitative -pretest-treat-post test & qualitative -research self -pretest-no treat- post test methods -novel sounding -no pre- no treat- post test lacks theory -random group Quasi-ExperimentalGrounded Theory Phenomenology -validated tools -two of three -theory building - descriptiveExp. controls -Basic Social Process - interpretive - hermeneuticDescriptiveExperimental Design - quantitative orEthnography -random sample qualitative methods -living in the experience -control group -cultural immersion -a treatment given Case Study-single-double cases -In-depth analysis - comparative analysisAction ResearchAdequate time commitment Collaborative effort Openness to change Quality of data collection and analysis Impact on one’s practice

slide3

Positivistic Inquiry Naturalistic Inquiry (Constructivism)Quantitative Triangulated QualitativeSolomon DesignBlended DesignsPost-modernQuasi-ExperimentalGrounded Theory PhenomenologyConstant Comparative AnalysisDescriptiveExperimental DesignEthnographyCase StudyScientific Rigors by DesignValidity & Reliability (internal-external) Conceptual Framework Developed Descriptive Vividness Statistical Inference Methodological CongruenceGeneralizability Analytical PrecisenessTemporality Theoretical Connectedness Selection and Bias Heuristic RelevanceMeasurement validity / reliability Trustworthiness, Credibility, Controlling confounders and AuditabilityAppropriate study design for the questions Confirmability, transferability Stylistic & Personal Relevance, Heuristic

slide4

Sample Size by DesignPositivistic Inquiry Naturalistic Inquiry (Constructivism)Quantitative Triangulated QualitativeSolomon DesignBlended DesignsPost-modern Power Analysis 20-40 1 Quasi-ExperimentalGrounded Theory Phenomenology >40 10-1000 10-saturation (10-30) DescriptiveExperimental Design1-12Ethnography Power Analysis 1Case Study1-2Action Research?-100

assumptions of positivistic thinking page 1
Assumptions of Positivistic Thinking page 1
  • Reality is singular, tangible, & and can be dissected
  • The researcher and those being studied are independent
  • Time and context-free generalizations are possible
  • Inquiry is value-free

singular

reality

value free

Positivistic

thinking

independent

variables

generalizable

assumptions of positivistic thinking
Assumptions of Positivistic Thinking
  • There are real causes or at least high probability of a relationship.
  • We believe we can have independent and dependent variables as separate entities
  • Validity of a design is very critical to results

singular

reality

value free

Positivistic

thinking

cause &

effect

validity

independent

variables

generalizable

assumptions of positivistic thinking page 3
Assumptions of Positivistic Thinking page 3
  • Reliability is based on how the design is reproducible
  • Generalizability is related to good internal validity and reliability with comparable samples
  • Hypothesis testing

value-free

reliability

hypothesis

testing

singular

reality

Positivistic

thinking

cause

& effect

validity

generalizable

independent

variable

assumptions of naturalistic inquiry
Assumptions of Naturalistic Inquiry
  • Realities are multiple, pluralistic, and holistic
  • The researcher cannot really be separated from those being studied and relation-ships are explained
  • hypotheses are time and context bound - they are only working statements

multiple realities

naturalistic

inquiry

hypothesis

is a focus

area

researcher

& subject

connected

assumptions of naturalistic inquiry1
Assumptions of Naturalistic Inquiry
  • All entities are in a state of mutual simultaneous shaping
  • Inquiry is value-bound
  • Validity is designed into the process
  • Reliability & general- izable are not concepts of value with this thinking

multiple realities

inquiry is value bound

Naturalistic

inquiry

hypothesis

is a focus

area

researcher

& subject

connected

thick

description

differences in scientific rigor positivistic naturalistic
Validity

Internal and external reliability

Hypothesis testing

Statistical inferences

Independent and dependent variables

Variable controls

Generalizability

Descriptive vividness

Methodological congruence

Analytical preciseness

Theoretical connectedness

Heuristic relevance

Others

Differences in Scientific Rigorpositivistic naturalistic
data collection difference positivistic naturalistic
Tools

surveys, questionnaires

objective assessment & identification

Measure the dependent variable

Convert to numeric symbols

Apply statistical inferences to numbers

Large sample sizes help withconfidence levels

Tool

it is the investigator by interview, focus groups, & observation

Data is subjective and objective. It is collected & not measured

Themes or clusters are identified and data is sorted in a theme analysis

The themes are supported by participants or experts

Data Collection Differencepositivistic naturalistic
differences in results positivistic naturalistic
Statistical significance for pre-post treatment

Statistical correlations & relationships identified

Probability of errors & confidence identified

Causal relationships

The exploration & description of a phenomenon

Identification of linkages, relationships, or interpretations based on theory connections

Results are themes, clusters of ideas, or theory constructs

Differences in Results positivistic naturalistic
positivistic discussion of results
Positivistic Discussion of Results
  • 250 nurses were surveyed with an 80% response rate or N=200. Questions were rated using the Likert 5 scale. Question 1 had a mean of 4.2 with a S.D. of 0.5 suggesting the nurses had favorable opinions about continuing education. Compared to a 1994 survey asking the same question, there was a statistical difference that was less favorable (mean 3.1, S.D. 0.7, p<.05)
naturalistic description
Naturalistic Description
  • I sat in the classroom as a peripheral member staying as unobtrusive as possible. The instructor came out from behind her desk, sitting on the edge as she opened with a question that brought all eyes in the room to meet her own eyes. She paused - looked at the eyes of the students.
  • The instructor displayed immediacy from the moment she started the class.
ethics and research
Ethics and Research
  • Starts with the study purpose, design, methods of measurement, and subjects
  • Guidelines for all of these
  • It is still a concern today
  • More recent ethical issues are:
    • Fabrication of a study
    • Falsification or forging of data
    • Dishonest manipulation of the design or methods
    • Plagiarism
  • 50% of the top 50 research institutions in US have been investigated for research fraud
ethical problems in history http helix nih gov 8001 ohsr mpa 45cfr46 php3
Ethical Problems in Historyhttp://helix.nih.gov:8001/ohsr/mpa/45cfr46.php3
  • Nazi medical experiments (1933-1945)
  • Tuskegee syphilis study by the USPHS (1932-1972)
  • Willowbrook study (1950-1970) Hepatitis study
  • Jewish Chronic Disease Hospital study with live CA cells in 1960s
ethical problems in history
Ethical Problems in History
  • University –Atomic Energy Government Exp.
    • 18 men and women injected with plutonium to determine body distribution (at the time said to be terminal) 1945-47
    • 20 subjects ages 63-83 given doses of radioactive radium and thorium inj. or oral. 1961-65
    • 64 male inmates at Washington St. Prison had testicular radiation to determine the smallest does to makes someone sterile. 1963-70
    • 125 retarded residents were fed radioactive ir9n and calcium to see if a diet rich in cereal would block the digestion of those two minerals. 1946-56
nuremberg code 1949
Nuremberg Code-1949
  • Voluntary consent
  • Must yield fruitful results for society
  • Anticipated results justify the type of experiment
  • Avoids all unnecessary physical-mental injury
  • Cannot do studies that have a known injury or death unless the exp. Physician is a subject
  • Risk does not out weight humanitarian benefit
  • Proper precautions to prevent injury, dis., death
  • Conducted by qualified persons
  • Subjects can always stop the study
  • Researcher must always be ready to stop the study (risk)
declaration of helsinki 1964 84
Declaration of Helsinki-1964-84
  • Differentiated therapeutic vs. nontherapeutic research
    • Clinical vs. Basic
  • Greater care to protect subjects in nontherapeutic research
  • There must be a strong, independent justification for exposing a healthy vol. to substantial risk
  • The investigator is to protect the health and life of research subjects
the belmont report three ethical principles
The Belmont ReportThree Ethical Principles
  • Principle of respect for persons
    • Right to self determination and freedom to participate or not
  • Principle of Beneficence
    • Do no harm to others
  • Principle of Justice
    • Treat everyone fairly without discrimination
  • Led to USDHHS Code on Ethics
    • Title 45, Part 46 (45 CFR 46)
    • Office of Human Subjects Research (OHSR) within NIH
    • http://helix.nih.gov:8001/ohsr
institutional review board
Institutional Review Board
  • IRB review process 4-6 weeks
  • Consent forms (voluntary subjects)
  • Disclosure forms
  • Confidentiality
  • Compensation disclosure
  • Ethics documented in the research
  • Accountability to rules, regulations, and legal entities
the literature review
The Literature Review
  • Primary Sources
  • Secondary Sources
  • Theoretical literature
  • Empirical literature
  • Integrative reviews (Evidence Based Research)
    • www. clinicalevidence.com/
    • www.cochrane.org/
    • www.guideline.gov
    • www.ahcpr.gov/clinic/
definition of a literature review
Definition of a Literature Review
  • A systematic and explicit approach to the identification, retrieval, and bibliographical management of independent studies … locating information … synthesizing … developing guidelines …
purposes of the lit review
Purposes of the Lit. Review
  • Facilitate development of the Conceptual Framework by summarizing knowledge
  • Clarify the research topic
  • Clarify the research problem
  • Verify the significance of the research problem
  • Specify the purpose of the study
  • Describe relevant studies or theories
  • Develop definitions of major variables
  • Select a research design, data measurement, data collection & analysis, & interpret findings