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The Republic of Texas Photo from http://www.srttexas.org/Graphic/Texas%20Flag%20Redone.jpg
THE TREATIES OF VELASCO Public Terms • The war between Mexico and Texas was officially ended, and Texas was declared independent. • Santa Anna would not take up arms against Texas. • All Mexican forces would withdraw beyond the Rio Grande. • Prisoners would be exchanged. • Mexico would return all captured property. • Texas leaders would promptly return Santa Anna to Mexico.
THE TREATIES OF VELASCO Secret Terms • Provided for Santa Anna’s immediate release • Santa Anna would try to persuade Mexican leaders to recognize the independence of Texas. • Santa Anna would push for the Rio Grande to be Mexico’s border with Texas.
RESPONSE TO THE TREATIES OF VELASCO Texans Respond: • A small force stopped Santa Anna • David G. Burnet imprisoned him Mexican Response: • Leaders did not recognize treaties or Texas independence
Treaties of Velasco Public Terms Secret Terms * * * * * * * * * Response to the Treaties Texas Mexico * * * *
Texans took these steps in building their new nation: • Sam Houston was elected president of the Republic of Texas. • Mirabeau B. Lamar was elected vice-president. • A constitution was adopted. Were these steps enough to make them successful?
Results of the Election of 1836 President: Vice President: Congress: Constitution: Annexation: The Early Republic Sam Houston Mirabeau B. Lamar elected senators and representatives approved the Texas Constitution of 1836 voted to seek U.S. annexation of Texas
Sam Houston’s Inaugural Address - 1836 “[We] modestly remonstrated against oppression, and, when invaded by a numerous host, we dared to proclaim our independence and to strike for freedom on the breast of the oppressor. As yet our course is onward. We are only in the outset of the campaign of liberty.” http://www.pbs.org/weta/thewest/people/d_h/houston.htm
Problems in the New Republic • The Mexican government refused to recognize Texas’s independence. • Mexico and Texas were still at war. • Other nations also needed to be persuaded that Texas is independent. • The new government was in debt from the Texas revolution. • Indians are now way out numbered and Anglo Americans are taking over their territory. • Indians threaten to declare war on the Texans.
How can Houston solve these problems? • Houston was cautious. • He tried to prevent another war with Mexico or with Native Texans. • Houston limited government spending. Houston thought the best solution to Texas’s problems was annexation to the United States. Houston’s well appointed cabinet helped him with these problems. (Stephen F. Austin served as secretary of state.) Cabinet – council that advises the chief executive
Stephen F. Austin Dies • After serving as secretary of state for only three months, Stephen F. Austin dies at the age of 43. What did he accomplish? • Texas’s first empresario • served as leader for all American colonists in Texas • led the first major military conflict in the Revolution • traveled to the United States to raise money for the war.
A New Capital • Initially, Columbia, a small town in Brazoria County, was declared the capital city. • Two brothers, John and Augustus Allen, planned on building a new town near Harrisburg, which had been burned during the Revolution. • They named this town Houston, after Sam. • Houston remained the capital of Texas throughout Houston’s first administration, even though people complained about the conditions in this town. • It was muddy, hot, and had simple log structures, etc.
The First Attempt at Annexation • The addition of Texas to the United States made sense to many. • Texan Anson Jones went to the U.S. Congress and tried to get them to accept Texas into the Union. • Texas would have been considered a slave state, and many members of the U.S. congress opposed slavery. • This decision was delayed, and Houston ordered Jones to withdraw the request. • Houston didn’t want Texas to be embarrassed by having its request delayed any longer.
Financial Woes • One of the biggest problems in the new Republic was the lack of money. • When Sam Houston began his presidency, Texas was in debt over $1 million. • Houston held government expenses to a minimum and tried to raise revenue only for items that were absolutely necessary. Revenue – annual or current income of the government
Financial Woes • In 1837 the Texas Congress authorized Houston to issue about $600,000 in promissory notes. • These notes made a promise that the government would pay the specified amount to the holder of the note at a future date. • This was called “star money” because these “notes” had a star on the front of them. promissory notes – written promise to pay a sum of money at a future time
Financial Woes • When Texas’s financial situation did not improve, some feared that the promise of future payment might not be kept. • As a result, people started refusing to accept the promissory notes. I.O.U.
Tension Between Texas and Mexico Still Exists • In the Treaties of Velasco, Santa Anna agreed to the independence of Texas. Mexico refused to accept the treaties. • Mexico refused to acknowledge that Texas was independent.
Trouble in the Army • Thousands of citizens arrived in Texas too late to fight in the Revolution. • Felix Huston raised an army of 500 to 700 volunteers to fight in the Texas Revolution. • The war was over when Huston’s army; therefore, their eagerness to fight made them try to renew the war with Mexico! • Houston sent Huston’s soldiers home. • This helped financially because now Houston didn’t have to pay these soldiers.
Houston's Native Texan Policy • Texas not only had conflicts with Mexico but also the Native Texans. • Remember, the Native Texans were promised by Houston the title to their land they occupied in East Texas. • The Texas Congress refused to uphold this treaty (promise) Houston had agreed upon. http://images.amazon.com/images/P/0306805863.01.MZZZZZZZ.jpg
Houston's Native Texan Policy • Many Texans wanted the Native Texans out because the land they occupied was the richest farmland in Texas. • Houston, unlike most Texans, was sympathetic to the Native Texans. • The Texas Rangers had to be called in to patrol the frontier. • Attacks on both sides continued.
ELECTION OF 1838 • Since the Texan Constitution did not have back to back terms, President Houston had to hand over the government in 1838. • Vice-President Lamar remained popular by the Texas people and was elected as the second president of the Republic of Texas. Mirabeau B. Lamar http://dl.tamu.edu/Projects/sodct/images/mlamar.jpg
A Different Vision for Texas Photo from http://www.srttexas.org/Graphic/Texas%20Flag%20Redone.jpg
was bold liked flashy clothing worked on keeping peace with Mexico and the Native Texans. spent little money promoted annexation of Texas to the U.S. liked quiet reading did not shy away from conflicts with Mexico and the Native Texans. wanted to get rid Texas of ALL Native Texans spent LARGE sums of borrowed money on military expeditions wanted Texas to remain independent and expand its borders LAMAR HOUSTON
PRESIDENT LAMAR • Lamar’s aggressive approach to Texas’s policies was obvious in his 1838 inaugural address: • “If peace can be obtained only by the sword, let the sword do its work.” http://dl.tamu.edu/Projects/sodct/images/mlamar.jpg
Clashes with Native Texans • Unlike Houston, Lamar wanted to kill or force all of the Native Texans out of Texas. • Lamar’s generals forced the Cherokees out of East Texas. • The Cherokees went to live in present-day Oklahoma.
Council House Fight • Lamar also wanted the Comanches out of Southwest Texas. • Many skirmishes took place Texas troops vs Comanches. • Finally the Comanches agreed to meet in San Antonio (March - 1840) to discuss peace. • The Comanches promised to release all Anglo captives. • One Anglo girl released looked as though she had been tortured. The Texans were outraged!
The Texans refused to let the Comanche leaders leave without having all the Texas captives released from all Comanche bands. • When the Comanche leaders tried to leave, they were attacked. This fight was known as the Council House Fight. • 7 Texans were killed. • MANY Comanche leaders were killed. • The Comaches were outnumbered and unarmed.
BATTLE OF PLUM CREEK • When news of the Council House Fight reached the Comanche villagers, they were FURIOUS! • They thought their leaders should have been safe while attending the PEACE talks. • The Comanches killed the rest of the Texas prisoners and raided the towns of Linnville and Victoria (South Texas.) • The Texans fought back killing more than 100 Comanches in a battle called
Relations with Mexico • Lamar thought that sending rebels to revolt in Mexico would help Texas. • Lamar’s actions only increased tension between Mexico and Texas. • Lamar also upset New Mexico by assuming that the land west of Texas, along the Rio Grande, was Texas’s. • Lamar felt he was entitled to this land under the Treaties of Velasco that was signed by Santa Anna in 1836. http://images.google.com/images?q=schoolhouse+rock&hl=en&lr=&start=80&sa=N
In 1841 Lamar asked permission from congress to send troops to New Mexico. Congress said, “NO!” • Lamar sent General Hugh McLoed and a force of 270 men to Santa Fe (1,300 miles away) to convince those in New Mexico they were Texans. • The people in New Mexico refused to become part of Texas. • Without the necessary supplies to return home, the Texans surrendered to Mexican authorities and were imprisoned in Mexico for about a year. • The Santa Fe expedition was a waste of money that Texas did not have. • Lives were also unnecessarily lost on this expedition as well.
A New Capital • Lamar did not like Houston being the capital of Texas. • Lamar wanted a more centrally located capital. • He choose 100 miles north of San Antonio. • He named this site Austin, in honor of Stephen F. Austin. http://archives.cnn.com/2001/US/02/25/mardi.gras.melee/map.texas.austin.jpg
EDUCATION • Lamar is best known for his contributions to public education. • Lamar believed that a strong educational system would make Texas a great nation. • The Texas Congress set aside almost 18,000 acres of land in each county for public schools. • Although few schools were actually build during Lamar’s administration, he became known as the “FATHER EDUCATION IN TEXAS”.
Financial Difficulties • Texas’s financial problem got worse during Lamar’s presidency. • Lamar expanded the use of bills known as “redbacks”. • They were called “redbacks” because of the color of ink that was used. • The redbacks went down in value. • Lamar spent money on battles that he didn’t have. • Public debt increased to almost $7 million by the end of Lamar’s term. Public debt – amount of money a national government owes
Land Policy • During Lamar’s presidency, the empresarial system returned. • The Texas Constitution promised: • 4,605 acres to every Anglo family already living in Texas. • 640 acres were given to immigrants • 320 acres were given for 3 months in the army Texas’s population increased from 34,000 when the Republic was first formed to more than 100,000.
Problems Mexico not recognizing Texas as independent Raids by Indians DEBT Promissory notes Cut Spending Reduce military (ie: Felix Huston who wanted to start war) Texas Rangers Solutions
ECONOMY LAND POLICY TEXAS INDIANS Action Action Action Result Result Result Lamar’s Presidency issued red backs passed homestead law declared war on American Indians worthless within three years, in part because of rising national debt protected Texans’ homes and up to 50 acres from seizure for debts removed Cherokee from East Texas, pushed Comanche north & west, increased debt
Houston's Return Leads to Annexation Photo from http://www.srttexas.org/Graphic/Texas%20Flag%20Redone.jpg
Sam Houston as President Again • Since the Texas constitution stated that you could not be president for two consecutive terms, Lamar was not eligible to run for president….BUT Sam Houston was. • Although not everyone agreed with Houston’s plan and ideas for Texas, he was reelected in 1841.
A Return to Houston's Policy Once in office, Houston put his plan back into action. • reduced government spending • pulled Texas military out of Mexico
Not all military men obeyed Houston's orders to leave Mexico. • Moore was the Texas Navy Commander in Mexico. • Moore defied Houston’s orders to leave Mexico and went to New Orleans to repair his ships and re-supply his crew. • Houston declared Moore a pirate and invited other countries to sink his ships! • Moore eventually returned back to Texas.
Mexican Troops Return • On March 5, 1842, Mexican’s General Vasquez and about 700 soldiers took control of San Antonio. • Vasquez raised the Mexican flag, declaring Mexican control. • Two days later, Vasquez returned to Mexico.
Mexican Troops Return ...and take Texans hostage! • In September of that same year, Mexican soldiers invaded Texas again. • General Woll led 1,400 Mexican soldiers to San Antonio where they captured San Antonio again and took 67 Texas hostages with them. • Houston sent a group of 300 militia to pursue Woll and his men. • This Texas militia was led by General Alexander Somervell.
Somervell's forces chase the Mexican soldiers. • Before Somervell’s forces could reach the Mexican troops, they had already crossed the Rio Grande into Mexico. • Somervell stopped the chase because he thought his orders prohibited him to cross into Mexico. • Many members of the militia were upset. • They didn’t want to leave without a fight. • They thought they didn’t have enough supplies to return across South Texas. • In revolt, the militia elected William Fisher to lead them into Mexico. • They crossed the Rio Grande on December 23, 1842.
The Mier Expedition • Once in Mexico, the Texans demanded that the citizens of Mier (a small town) provide them with needed supplies. • While the Texans waited, Mexican general Pedro de Ampudía and his troops arrived and captured them. • Santa Anna ordered one of every ten prisoners to be put to death. (The others would be imprisoned for LIFE!)
How did they decide which of the Texans would be killed? Thomas Green, a member of the expedition, explained how the Mexican leaders decided which men would be killed: “…by the drawing of black and white beans from a small earthen mug. The white ones signified exemption, and the black death. One hundred and fifty-nine white beans were placed in the bottom of the mug, and seventeen black ones were placed upon the top of them.” • If the prisoner drew a black bean, they were shot by a firing squad. The ones drawing a white bean were imprisoned. • Many of the Texans died in prison and the others were released in 1844.