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Pedagogical Issues and Mobile Learning . Ben Bachmair, University of Kassel, Germany AERA Symposium " Outside in and inside out: interdisciplinarity and mobile learning research " . The feature of a culture ecologic approach to mobile learning.

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pedagogical issues and mobile learning
Pedagogical Issues and Mobile Learning

Ben Bachmair,

University of Kassel, Germany

AERA Symposium

"Outside in and inside out: interdisciplinarity and mobile learning research"

the feature of a culture ecologic approach to mobile learning
The feature of a culture ecologic approach to mobile learning

Mobile devices /media and mobile learning are

  • cultural resources among others
  • within a mobile complex of

socio-cultural structures (mobile, individualised mass communication, socio-cultural milieus), agency (habitus) and cultural practices (media use, informal + learning in the school).

  • They can be assimilated by the school by conversational and contextual options (e.g. naïve expertise)
  • with the intention to support participation (focus on at-risk learners).
topics of the presentation
Topics of the presentation
  • A culture ecological view on the mobile complex, its structures, agency and practices
  • The school’s challenges towards socio-cultural changing and its mobile complex
  • At-risk learners and their cultural participation
  • Assimilation of (4.1) conversational and (4.2) contextual options of students practices into the school.
the general model for developing educational reactions to socio cultural changing
The general model for developing educational reactions to socio-cultural changing
  • Anthony Giddens(1984): Structuration; the relation of social structures and agency
  • Stuart Hall (1997): Media in the circulation between cultural practices
  • The socio-cultural complex of individualisation within the society of individualised risks,

socio-cultural milieus

- Partial failing of the school for socially specific learners (PISA results; at risk learners) and the increasing informal learning outside the school,

- Individualised and mobile mass communication.

the changing structures of mass communication individualised mobile
The changing structures of mass communication: individualised, mobile
  • Away from professionally edited and institutionally delivered content
  • to Web 2.0 and the ubiquitous individualised mobile production of content and contexts by means of the convergent mobile phone
  • which coins and challenges the agency of the people.
  • This leads to cultural practices like to use media internet platforms e.g. YouTube for specific application like the video of the mobile.

- Learning as meaning making in a variety of situations which are not restricted to the school,

- Habitus for individualized learning within divergent socio-cultural milieus, which leads to informal learning,

- Naïve expertise which is individually appropriated on personal definitions of relevance.

- Personal definition of relevant contexts within media induced spaces, e.g. Web 2.0.

cultural practices of learning
Cultural practices of learning
  • Increase of informal learning outside the school
  • curricular learning in traditional modes (driven by a teacher and learning subjects) and

in flexible modes (situated, constructivist, collaborative)

with at-risk learners as a feature of the individualisation of risks,


School’s option:

Banning of mobiles


Assimilation of

*informal learning

*mobile expertise

*habitus of learning

By means of

*taking up

conversational threads of the students;

*docking to the students’ generated contexts as ‘zones of proximal development

The socio-cultural complex of mobile devices

*Brought mobile devices into everyday life within media convergence;

*Reinforces individualization by mobility;

*Transforms agency: mobile expertise;

*Transforms mass

communication: mobile,

individualized and

convergence contexts

Children and young people as students with their agency and their resources within their cultural practices:

*informal learning

*mobile expertise

*habitus of learning

3 at risk learners and their cultural participation
3.At-risk learners and their cultural participation

3.1 PISA –Results

The school lost its defining power on what is learning. The school necessary U-turn on new cultural resources and the new social inequality.

3.2 New habitus of learning in socio-cultural milieus

3 1 the pisa deficit group in reading programme for international student assessment

Result of the PISA Study:

There are risk groups

* Boys

* from migrant families,

* from low levelled school

* lower layer of social stratification and income

3 2 habitus of a migrant male students
3.2 Habitus of a migrant male students

The case of Cyril,

a 18 year old boy with a migrant background within the socio-cultural milieu of a hedonistic subculture (Sinus Sociovision):

Self idealisation as an underdog, but better than the silly Germans;

To investigate the real German underdogs and to have fun by risks;

Conflict with the police.

4 the idea of assimilation bringing outside in
4. The idea of assimilation: Bringing outside in

Cyrill’s cultural practice outside

Cyrill uploaded mobile videos.

Cyrill is brought to court because of a video which shows - among other - the harassment of homeless men and

of a video with Nazi symbols.

assimilation of the school by
Conversational options (Laurillard 2007, p. 160) = knotting conversational threads

Context options = Docking at user generated contexts as zones of proximal development (Vygotsky 1930, 1934)

Quelle:, 4. September 2007

Assimilation of the school by

The curricular task = assimilation by * prolonging conversational threads * docking user generated contexts as zone of proximal developmentinto / at to the school practice

Still Images from Cyrill’s mobile video which ‘depicts’ and ‘harasses’ homeless drunk
4 1 assimilative conversational options
4.1 Assimilative conversational options

Conversational threads on regional cultural values

taken by police, newspaper, law institutions, institutions of social care for homeless

further conversational threads
Further conversational threads
  • ‘Investigation’ of social situations at the edge of the main stream society =

can lead to investigative learning activities.

  • ‘Professional expertise ’ indicated by the logo in English “Cyril pictures”.
  • Peers and software expertise.
  • Lifestyle and hair designer.
  • ‘Empathy’ between the unsavoury old drunk and Cyrill.
  • Verbal provocation on the web

Conversational thread: peers, software expertise

A boy asks Cyrill as an expert for websites: „CYRILL wie hasT du dich selber als hinTERgruND gemaCHt? Sag mal bitte peace.“

“Cyrill how

did you make yourself as background?

Say it please peace.”

conversational thread verbal provocation
Conversational thread: verbal provocation, 9_Jan_2008

„Ünlü Videoları

Taglar : Augsburg - - - CYRILL - - - Die - Legende - kehrt - zurück –

A?iklamasi : Nachdem alle meine Videos aus YouTube gelöscht worden sind, hab ich einen neuen C.Y.R.I.L.L TRAILER erstellt peace xxx porn slut Jenny McCarthy Jim Carrey Playboy MTV uncensored Carmen Electra bunny Brad Pitt tits til death cock bikini msn webcam hack camera porn tape sex paris hilton in jail analita anal lover anal teen tryouts bangbros assparade blowjob for free eat nuts suck dick carmen electra jessica alba fantastic four uncensored tits nipple slip pussy vagina stick show tits ups upskirt

Izlenme : 161 Kere Izlendi“

4.2 Assimilative Context options for developmentDocking at user generated contexts as proximal zones of development (Vygotsky 1930, 1934)

Context of the peer group of boys in late puberty, during the night, flaneurs looking for cool fun;

Occasional contact(s) to a young right wing German male adult; Nazi symbols.

further contextual options for development
Further contextual options for development
  • Socio-cultural milieu and habitus,
  • Socio-cultural milieu and lifestyle,
  • Identity, expertise, self images.

Länderübergreifend: Sinus-Meta-Milieus®, 4. Sept. 2007


Basic milieu (= context) orientation in habitus and developmental termsof the ‘hedonistic-subcultural milieu’ (BC3, escapists) in the migration context (Sinus Sociovision 2007, p. 65)

-“on the basis of the experienced social exclusion (self image of being a ‘Kanak’),

on the one hand the dream of a rich life in Germany with easy money making, luxury, prestige (‘Kohle scheffeln und Spaß haben’);

on the other hand resignation and a defiant (trotzig) ‘underdog’ mentality: being unemployed, without chances, discouraged;

(partly aggressive) distance to the mainstream of society together with not being adjusted – for example, in the outfit, in behaviour and language –,

conflicts with authority and authorities (parents, teachers, supervisor, police);

on one hand disapproval of demands for integration and achievement,

and on the other hand the desire for success, appreciation, a higher income and a better job;

- orientation towards the ‘here and now’, hardly any long term and future planning, uncontrolled spending of money, financial problems, often no perspective for the future (‘Null Bock’), insecurity, being passive.”
the context zone options in terms of lifestyle and living room
The context / zone optionsin terms of lifestyle and living room


„Migranten-Milieus Qualitative Untersuchung der Lebenswelten von Menschen mit Migrationshintergrund in Deutschland. Eine Multi-Client-Studie von Sinus Sociovision. Basisbericht. Heidelberg, Oktober 2007“

Sinus Sociovision GmbH

Ezanvillestraße 59 / D-69118 Heidelberg

Postfach 251265 / D-69080 Heidelberg

HRB 332922 MannheimGeschäftsführer:Dorothea Nowak, Berthold Flaig

Telefon: +49 (0) 6221-8089-0 / Telefax: +49 (0) 6221-8089-25




Developmental zone

of self images and identity


The curricular task = assimilation by * prolonging conversational threads * docking user generated contexts as zone of proximal developmentinto / at to the school practice

the planning model 4 parameters for analysis and planning needs empirical evaluation
The planning model4 parameters for analysis and planning(needs empirical evaluation)

(A): Learning set

Practice of the school ---- practices of mobile media

(B): Relation to the object of learning

Mimetic reproduction ---- personal reconstruction

(C): Basis of the institutional support for teaching and learning

School curriculum ---- personal expertise

(D): Media and Modes of representation

Discrete (linear; mono medial, mono modal) – convergent