Differential Psychological Outcomes Across Ethnicity Diana Naranjo Arizona State University Presented at WPA 2005
Importance of Exploring Ethnic Differences • Largest growing ethnic group in US • Mexican American’s represent 60% (US Census 2002)
Mexican American Psychological Outcomes • Elevated risk for psychological outcomes • Higher rates of depression (e.g. Siegel et al., 1998)
Parent-Child Relationships • Overall Parent-Child Relationship • Mattering to Parents • Why would there be differences across ethnicity?
Major Research Questions • Do differences across ethnicity surface as early as 7th grade? • Are there differences in both internalizing and externalizing outcomes? • Are there differences across ethnicity in the overall parent-child relationship? • Are there differences across ethnicity on perceived mattering to parents?
Ethnicity Hypotheses • Mexican Americans (MA’s) will exhibit higher levels of both internalizing & externalizing outcomes than European Americans (EA’s) • MA’s will express better overall relationships than EA’s • MA’s will express mattering more to parents than EA’s
Familism • Definition: Traditional Latino Family Values • Four Components: • Demographic • Structural • Behavioral • Normative
Scales • Adolescent Internalizing Behaviors • Example Item: “Things bothered me all the time” • Adolescent Externalizing Behaviors • Example Item: “In the past month you argued a lot” • Overall Parent-Child Relationship • Example Item: “How well do you get along with your (mom/dad)” • Perceived Mattering to Parents • Example Item: “I believe I really matter to my (mom/dad)”
Method of Analysis • We used Univariate ANOVA’s to analyze between group differences • Ethnicity was the only predictor • SEM was controlled for in all analysis • 170-199 people in each group
Internalizing Outcomes by Ethnicity *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.
Externalizing Outcomes by Ethnicity *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.
Report of Overall Parent Child Relationship by Ethnicity *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.
Child’s Perceived Mattering by Ethnicity *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001.
Original Ethnicity Hypotheses • Mexican Americans (MA’s) will exhibit higher levels of both internalizing & externalizing outcomes than European Americans (EA’s) • MA’s will express better overall relationships than EA’s • MA’s will express mattering more to parents than EA’s
Discussion • There are differences as early as 7th grade across ethnicity for externalizing behaviors • EA teens reported higher overall relationships with mother’s and resident dad’s • EA teens reported mattering more to mother’s, resident dad’s and bio-dad’s
References • U.S. Census Bureau, Current Population Survey, March 2002, Ethnic and Hispanic Statistics Branch, Population Division. Internet Release date: June 18, 2003 http://www.census.gov/population/socdemo/hispanic/ppl-165/tab01-1.xls • Siegel, J.M., Aneshensel, C.S., Taub, B., Cantwell, D.P., & Driscoll, A.K. (1998). Adolescent depressed mood in a multiethnic sample. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 27, 4, 413-427. • Hankin, B.L., Abramson, L.Y., Moffitt, T.E., Silva, P.A., McGee, R., Angell, K.E. (1998). Development of depression from preadolescence to young adulthood: Emerging gender differences in a 10-year longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107, 1, 128-140. • Kovacs, M. (1992). Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) manual. North Tonawanda NY: Multi-Health Systems. • Reynolds, C.R. & Paget, K.D. (1981). Factor analysis of the revised children’s manifest anxiety scale for blacks, whites, males, and females with a national normative sample. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 3, 352 359. • Achenback, T., & Edelbrock C. (1981). Behavioral problems and competencies reported by parents of normal and disturbed children aged four through sixteen. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, Serial No. 188