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Mendelian Genetics. Chapter 10.2 (277). How Genetics Began. Mendel and Others Studied Garden-Pea Traits Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk He was the first to apply mathematics to predict the way traits would be passed from one generation of pea plant to the other. Why peas?

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mendelian genetics

Mendelian Genetics

Chapter 10.2 (277)

how genetics began
How Genetics Began

Mendel and Others Studied Garden-Pea Traits

  • Gregor Mendel was an Austrian monk
  • He was the first to apply mathematics to predict the way traits would be passed from one generation of pea plant to the other.
  • Why peas?
          • Has traits that are easy to tell apart (table 8-1)
          • Mating of garden peas can be easily controlled
          • Garden peas are small, grow easily and quickly, and produce many offspring
the inheritance of traits
The Inheritance of Traits

Mendel Observed that Traits Are Expressed as Simple Ratios

  • Mendel’s first experiments were monohybrid crosses – a cross that involves one pair of contrasting traits (ex. Purple flowers crossed with white flowers)
  • Most of Mendel’s experiment followed these steps:
slide4

The first two plants crossed were the P generation (parental generation)

  • He then cross pollinated two P generation plants that had contrasting traits and called the resulting plants the F1 generation (first filial generation)
  • He allowed the F1 generation self-pollinate and called the offspring the F2 generation (second filial generation)
slide5

He was recording and analyzing quantitative data at every step… that’s what made him different!!!!

mendel s conclusions
Mendel’s Conclusions

Mendel formed many hypotheses throughout his research:

  • For each inherited trait, an organisms has two copies of the gene
  • There are alternate versions of genes called alleles
  • When two different alleles occur together one may be expressed and the other may not.
    • Dominant allele (capital letter) = expressed
    • Recessive allele (lowercase letter) = not expressed
contemporary genetics
Contemporary Genetics
  • Homozygous: both alleles are the same ex. TT or tt
  • Heterozygous: alleles are different ex. Tt
  • Genotype: the alleles combinations of an organism
  • Phenotype: physical appearance of an organism
mendel s ideas gave rise to the laws of heredity
Mendel’s Ideas Gave Rise to the Laws of Heredity
  • Law of Segregation: States that two alleles for a certain trait segregate (separate) when gametes are formed (we now know this happens during meiosis.)
  • Law of Independent Assortment: This explained that when alleles of a gene pair separate during gamete formation, the assortment of alleles in the resulting gametes has nothing to do with other gene pairs. This allows for more variation
predicting heredity
Predicting Heredity
  • Punnett squares can predict the expected results in crosses
  • Probabilities can also predict the expected results of crosses