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Other Computer Organizations. RISC. What is RISC. Pronounced risk, acronym for r educed i nstruction s et c omputer , a type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions.

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what is risc
What is RISC
  • Pronounced risk, acronym for reduced instruction set computer, a type of microprocessor that recognizes a relatively limited number of instructions.
  • Until the mid-1980s, the tendency among computer manufacturers was to build increasingly complex CPUs that had ever-larger sets of instructions.
  • Since the emergence of RISC computers, conventional computers have been referred to as CISCs (complex instruction set computers).
different opinions
Different Opinions
  • There is still considerable controversy among experts about the ultimate value of RISC architectures.
  • Its proponents argue that RISC machines are both cheaper and faster, and are therefore the machines of the future.
  • Skeptics note that by making the hardware simpler, RISC architectures put a greater burden on the software.
  • They argue that this is not worth the trouble because conventional microprocessors are becoming increasingly fast and cheap anyway.
well accepted opinions
Well Accepted Opinions
  • To some extent, the argument is becoming moot because CISC and RISC implementations are becoming more and more alike.
  • Many of today's RISC chips support as many instructions as yesterday's CISC chips.
  • And today's CISC chips use many techniques formerly associated with RISC chips.
sparc and ultra sparc cpus
  • Scalable Processor ARChitecture
  • SPARC were designed for handling of alphanumeric data and running programs like word processor and spreadsheets.
  • The UltraSPARC was designed for handling images, audio, video, and multimedia in general.
  • The later version of UltraSPARC III, IIIi, IV
architecture of ultrasparc
Architecture of UltraSPARC
  • 64-Bit SPARC architecture
  • VIS Instruction Set
  • Transistor Count: 11 million logic, 12 million RAM, 6 million miscellaneous
  • 4-way superscalar
  • 14-stage non-stable pipeline
process technology
Process Technology
  • CMOS .13 micron process
  • 1368 pin flip-chip ceramic Land Grid Array (LGA)
cache memories
CACHE Memories
  • L1 Cache
  • 64 KB 4-way data
  • 32 KB 4-way instruction
  • 2 KB Write, 2 KB Prefetch
  • L2 Cache
  • Up to 8 MB External
  • On-chip controller and address tags
  • MP scalability: Over 1000 CPUs/system.
  • Max Memory -- 16 GB memory subsystem per processors Memory Controller
  • On-chip memory controller capable of addressing up to 16 GB of main memory at 2.4 GB/s
  • Power Consumption Power Dissipation: 53 watts at 1.2 GHz1.6 volt core voltage
high performance
High Performance
  • Feature:
  • 64-bit data addressing, four-way superscalar,
  • 14 stage non-stalling pipeline,
  • speculative execution,
  • on-chip memory controller and L2 tags,
  • up to 8 MB external L2 cache,
  • advanced process technology including copper interconnects,
  • low-k interlayer dielectric.
ultrasparc vi
  • Architecture :
  • Chip Multithreading (CMT) processor with two threads per processor
  • Based on two UltraSPARC III pipelines
  • 64-Bit SPARC architecture VIS Instruction Set
  • 66 million transistor count
  • 4-way superscalar
  • 14-stage nonstalling pipeline
other specifications
Other Specifications
  • Clock Frequency : 1.05 - 1.35 GHz
  • L1 Cache (per pipeline) :
  • 64 KB 4-way data
  • 32 KB 4-way instruction
  • 2 KB Write, 2 KB Prefetch
  • L2 Cache :
  • 16 MB external (exclusive access to 8 MB per pipeline)
  • On-chip controller and address tags
other specs cont
Other Specs Cont…
  • Scalability : Multiprocessing scalability with architecture support for over 1000 processors/system.
  • Memory Controller : On-chip memory controller capable of addressing up to 16 GB of main memory at 2.4 GB/s.
  • System : Deployed in:
  • Sun Fire V490 server
  • Sun Fire V890 server
  • Sun Fire E2900 server
  • Sun Fire E4900 server
  • Sun Fire E6900 server
  • Sun Fire E20K server
  • Sun Fire E25K server
  • SUN Microsystems first suggested the idea in mid 1990’s and it become popular very soon.
  • The JVM has a memory of 32-bits word and 226 instructions that machine can executes.
  • Most of the instructions are simple, but a few are quite complex, requiring multiple memory cycles.
compiler and interepreter for java
Compiler and Interepreter for JAVA
  • To make the JAVA program potable, SUN wrote a compiler that compiles JAVA to JVM. It also wrote a JVM interpreter to execute Java binary programs.
  • The interpreter was written in C language.
  • Therefore, Java program can be compiled and executed on any machine with a C compiler.
applets in java
Applets in Java
  • The little Java binary programs associated with World Wide Web pages.
  • Many of these applets provide animation and sound.
jit just in time compiler
JIT (Just In Time) Compiler
  • To run a Java program requires a JVM-to-machine language –compiler inside the browser and being able to activate it on-the-fly as needed.
  • It is called JIT compiler.
jvm chips picojava ii
JVM Chips – PicoJava II
  • picoJava™-II Specification
  • Characteristics:
  • 32-bit processor
  • High speed, direct execution of Java byte codes
  • Supports legady C/C++code
  • 6-stage pipeline
  • Instruction folding-up to 4 instructions issued in parallel
  • Instruction Cache: 0-16 Kbyte  Data Cache: 0-16 Kbyte
picojava chip
picoJava Chip
  • A low-cost RISC microprocessor dedicated to executing Java -based bytecodes without the need for a interpreter or JIT compiler.
  • picoJava directly executes the JavaVirtual Machine instruction set.
  • As a result, Java software applications are up to 3 times smaller in code size and up to 5 times faster--thus reducing memory requirements--and 20 times faster than Java interpreters running on standard CPU s.
  • A Bit of History
  • The Java programming language is a general-purpose object-oriented concurrent language.
  • Its syntax is similar to C and C++, but it omits many of the features that make C and C++ complex, confusing, and unsafe.
  • The Java platform was initially developed to address the problems of building software for networked consumer devices.
It was designed to support multiple host architectures and to allow secure delivery of software components.
  • To meet these requirements, compiled code had to survive transport across networks, operate on any client, and assure the client that it was safe to run.
main features
Main Features
  • The popularization of the World Wide Web made these attributes much more interesting.
  • The Internet demonstrated how media-rich content could be made accessible in simple ways.
  • Web browsers such as Mosaic enabled millions of people to roam the Net and made Web surfing part of popular culture.
  • At last there was a medium where what you saw and heard was essentially the same whether you were using a Mac, PC, or UNIX machine, and whether you were connected to a high-speed network or a slow modem.
A Web browser incorporating the Java platform is no longer limited to a predetermined set of capabilities.
  • Visitors to Web pages incorporating dynamic content can be assured that their machines cannot be damaged by that content.
  • Programmers can write a program once, and it will run on any machine supplying a Java runtime environment.
Web enthusiasts soon discovered that the content supported by the Web's HTML document format was too limited.
  • HTML extensions, such as forms, only highlighted those limitations, while making it clear that no browser could include all the features users wanted.
  • Extensibility was the answer.
java instructions set
JAVA Instructions Set
  • The arithmetic instructions are as follows:
  • Add: iadd, ladd, fadd, dadd.
  • Subtract: isub, lsub, fsub, dsub.
  • Multiply: imul, lmul, fmul, dmul.
  • Divide: idiv, ldiv, fdiv, ddiv.
  • Remainder: irem, lrem, frem, drem.
  • Negate: ineg, lneg, fneg, dneg.
  • Shift: ishl, ishr, iushr, lshl, lshr, lushr.
  • Bitwise OR: ior, lor.
  • Bitwise AND: iand, land.
  • Bitwise exclusive OR: ixor, lxor.
  • Local variable increment: iinc.
  • Comparison: dcmpg, dcmpl, fcmpg, fcmpl, lcmp.