chapter 12
Download
Skip this Video
Download Presentation
Chapter 12

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 19

Chapter 12 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 142 Views
  • Uploaded on

Chapter 12. Maternal and Fetal Nutrition Debbie Hogan RN. Maternal and Fetal Nutrition. Good nutrition before and during pregnancy an important preventive measure Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants Preterm infants Neonatal death rates for moderate LBW are five times higher than babies >2500 g

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Chapter 12' - olisa


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
chapter 12

Chapter 12

Maternal and Fetal Nutrition

Debbie Hogan RN

maternal and fetal nutrition
Maternal and Fetal Nutrition
  • Good nutrition before and during pregnancy an important preventive measure
    • Low-birth-weight (LBW) infants
    • Preterm infants
    • Neonatal death rates for moderate LBW are five times higher than babies >2500 g
    • The risk for VLBW is 100 times higher
nutrient needs before conception
Nutrient Needs Before Conception
  • First trimester crucial for embryonic and fetal organ development
  • Healthful diet before conception ensures that adequate nutrients are available for developing fetus
  • Folic acid intake important in periconceptual period
    • Neural tube defects are more common in infants of women with poor folic acid intake
nutrient needs during pregnancy
Nutrient Needs During Pregnancy
  • Energy needs
    • Weight gain
      • Body mass index (BMI) = weight/height2
    • Pattern for weight gain
    • Hazards of restricting adequate weight gain
  • Protein
  • Fluids
nutrient needs during pregnancy cont d
Nutrient Needs During Pregnancy—cont’d
  • Minerals and vitamins
    • Iron
    • Calcium
  • Other minerals and electrolytes
    • Magnesium
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Zinc
    • Fluoride
nutrient needs during pregnancy cont d1
Nutrient Needs During Pregnancy—cont’d
  • Minerals and vitamins
    • Fat-soluble vitamins
      • Vitamins A, D, E, and K
    • Water-soluble vitamins
      • Folate or folic acid
      • Pyridoxine
      • Vitamin C
    • Multivitamin-multimineral supplements
nutrient needs during pregnancy cont d2
Nutrient Needs During Pregnancy—cont’d
  • Other nutrition issues during pregnancy
    • Pica and food cravings
    • Adolescent pregnancy needs
      • Improve nutritional health of pregnant adolescents by focusing on knowledge and planning of meals
      • Nutrition interventions and educational programs effective with adolescents
      • Understanding factors that create barriers to change in adolescent population
      • Promote access to prenatal care
nutrient needs during pregnancy cont d3
Nutrient Needs During Pregnancy—cont’d
  • Physical activity during pregnancy
    • Moderate exercise yields many benefits, including improving muscle tone, shortening course of labor, and sense of well-being
      • Liberal amounts of fluid should be consumed before, during, and after exercise
      • Calorie intake sufficient to meet increased needs of pregnancy and exercise
nutrient needs during lactation
Nutrient Needs During Lactation
  • Nutrition needs during lactation similar to those during pregnancy
  • Needs for energy (calories), protein, calcium, iodine, zinc, the B vitamins, and vitamin C greater than nonpregnant needs
nutrient needs during lactation cont d
Nutrient Needs During Lactation—cont’d
  • Energy intake increase of 500 kcal more than woman’s nonpregnant intake recommended
  • Smoking, alcohol intake, and excessive caffeine intake should be avoided during lactation
nursing care management
Nursing Care Management
  • Assessment
    • Diet history
      • Obstetric and gynecologic effects on nutrition
    • Medical history
    • Usual maternal diet
    • Physical examination
    • Laboratory testing
nursing care management cont d
Nursing Care Management—cont’d
  • Plan of care and implementation
    • Adequate dietary intake
      • Pregnancy
      • Postpartum
      • Daily food guide and menu planning
      • Medical nutrition therapy
      • Counseling about iron supplementation
nursing care management cont d1
Nursing Care Management—cont’d
  • Plan of care and implementation
    • Adequate dietary intake
      • Coping with nutrition-related discomforts of pregnancy
        • Nausea and vomiting
        • Constipation
        • Pyrosis (heartburn)
        • Cultural influences
        • Vegetarian diets
nutrition adolescent pregnancy
Nutrition & Adolescent Pregnancy
  • Adolescent attempting to meet needs of her growing body
  • Now needs nutrients for fetus
  • Weight restriction/mask the pregnancy
  • Insufficient dietary intake=SGA
key points
Key Points
  • Woman’s nutritional status before, during, and after pregnancy contributes to her well-being and that of her infant
  • Physiologic changes during pregnancy influence need for additional nutrients and efficiency with which the body uses them
  • Total maternal weight gain and pattern of weight gain are important determinants of outcome of pregnancy
key points cont d
Key Points—cont’d
  • Appropriateness of mother’s prepregnancy weight for height (BMI) is major determinant of recommended weight gain during pregnancy
  • Nutritional risk factors include adolescent pregnancy; bizarre or faddish food habits; abuse of nicotine, alcohol, or drugs; low weight for height; and frequent pregnancies
key points cont d1
Key Points—cont’d
  • Iron supplementation is recommended routinely during pregnancy
  • Other supplements recommended when nutritional risk factors present
  • Nurse and woman influenced by cultural and personal values and beliefs during nutrition counseling
key points cont d2
Key Points—cont’d
  • Pregnancy complications that may be nutrition related include:
    • Anemia
    • Gestational hypertension
    • Gestational diabetes
    • Intrauterine growth restriction
  • Dietary adaptations can be effective interventions for some common discomforts of pregnancy, including nausea and vomiting, constipation, and heartburn
ad