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Teacher Policies AROUND the World. Agustina S. Paglayan Human Development Department | The World Bank. MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES. METHODOLOGY. DATA EXAMPLES & USES. Motivation. Teachers are the most important school-level factor in student outcomes… “What are other countries doing?”

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teacher policies around the world

Teacher Policies AROUND the World

Agustina S. Paglayan

Human Development Department | The World Bank

motivation

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Motivation
  • Teachers are the most important school-level factor in student outcomes…
    • “What are other countries doing?”
    • Limited information and evidence as to what are the most effective policies
  • Teacher Policies Around the World as part of a large work program, Education Systems for Results
objectives

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Objectives
  • Collect, analyze, synthesize and disseminate comprehensive information on teacher policies across education systems in developed and developing countries
data collection process

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Data Collection Process
  • Hiring and training of local consultants
  • Identification of key education experts
  • Survey administered among key experts
    • Focus on public schools
    • Focus on primary and secondary mainstream education
    • Relatively more emphasis on documenting “in law” policies, but systematic way to capture “in practice” scenario
  • Collecting legal/regulatory documents
  • Validation of answers by checking them against supporting documents (official laws, regulations, salary schedules, census, administrative data, etc.)
development of data collection instrument

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Development of Data Collection Instrument
  • Development of pilot instrument
    • Reviewed prior related efforts in developed countries
    • Identified key dimensions of teacher policies, and key issues in each dimension
    • Developed pilot data collection instrument
  • Application of pilot instrument in selected countries
    • Role of local consultants and local Bank offices
    • Training of local consultants
  • Refinement of data collection instrument + Development of complementary materials
    • Changed document format, structure of instrument, internal organization
    • Polished questions (“in law” vs. “in practice”; simple, single questions)
    • Included new questions based on pilot and feedback from regions
    • Refined validation mechanism
    • Narrowed focus (e.g., public schools)
    • Criteria for federal systems
    • ToRs + Discussion Paper + Manual for the Interviewer + Quiz + HelpdeskTP@worldbank.org
  • Take to scale – expanding country participation and publishing information online
ten teacher policy dimensions

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Ten Teacher Policy Dimensions

10. School leadership

1. Requirements to enter and remain in teaching

9. Teacher representation and voice

2. Initial teacher preparation

8. Monitoring and evaluation of teacher quality

3. Recruitment and employment

Effective Teachers

7. Retirement rules and benefits

4. Teachers’ workload, duties and autonomy

5. Professional development policies

6. Compensation: Salary and non-salary benefits

Overview of the education system

why these specific dimensions

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Why these Specific Dimensions?
  • Surveyed previous efforts from other countries/regions:
    • Eurydice (2001-2003; 2005), Loeb and Miller (2006), Quality Counts (2008), OECD TALIS (2009)
  • Brought together a team of renowned experts in this area
    • Susanna Loeb, Stanford University
    • PilarRomaguera, Universidad de Chile
  • Employed 4 criteria:
    • Empirical evidence
    • Theory
    • Resource allocation
    • Actionable
key questions for each dimension

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Key Questions for each Dimension

1. Requirements to enter and remain in teaching

  • Who regulates the requirements to enter and remain in the teaching profession?
  • What are the requirements to become a public school teacher?
  • Are there requirements that need to be fulfilled on a continuing basis?
  • Who regulates initial teacher education programs?
  • What are the education routes available to become a teacher?
  • How selective is entry into a teacher education program?
  • What qualifications are acquired upon completion of a teacher education program?
  • Does the initial preparation of teachers include practical experience?

2. Initial teacher preparation

  • Who hires, dismisses, promotes and decides on the distribution of teachers?
  • What incentives exist for hard-to-staff schools; shortage subjects; leadership roles?
  • What is the age profile of the teaching force?
  • What is the employment status and job stability of teachers?
  • Are teachers allowed to tutor students outside regular school hours?

3. Recruitment and employment

  • How much time are teachers expected to work?
  • What tasks are teachers expected to carry out?
  • How much autonomy do teachers have?
  • How do school conditions affect teachers’ workload?

4. Teachers’ workload, duties and autonomy

5. Professional development policies

  • Who provides and funds professional development?
  • What are the PD rules and policies that apply to public school teachers?
  • What forms of support are available specifically for beginning teachers?
key questions for each dimension1

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Key Questions for each Dimension
  • Who determines teachers’ salaries?
  • What are the rules that determine a teacher’s level of compensation?
  • Are there monetary sanctions for teacher absenteeism?
  • What is the fiscal burden of teacher compensation?

6. Compensation: Salary and non-salary benefits

  • Who determines teachers’ retirement benefits?
  • What is the scope and structure of retirement benefits?
  • What is the age structure of the teaching force?
  • How are pension payments and retirement schemes financed?

7. Retirement rules and benefits

  • Are public school teachers evaluated on a regular basis?
  • Who evaluates teachers’ performance?
  • What criteria and sources of information are used to assess teachers’ performance?
  • For what are the results of teacher performance evaluations used?

8. Monitoring and evaluation of teacher quality

  • What labor rights do teachers enjoy?
  • At what level does collective bargaining for the teaching profession occur?
  • What issues are subject to collective bargaining and who is affected?
  • What power do teacher organizations have to affect education policies?

9. Teacher representation and voice

  • What is the recruitment and employment process for school principals?
  • Is there a performance evaluation system for school principals?
  • What are the tasks and autonomy assigned to school principals?
  • How are school principals rewarded for their work?

10. School leadership

structure

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Structure…
structure1

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Structure…
structure2

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Structure…
structure3

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Structure…
structure4

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Structure…
structure5

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Structure…
structure6

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Structure…
examples of agis

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Examples of AGIs

Ultimate legal authority to hire, fire, promote, and allocate teachers across public schools

(a) Hire

(b) Fire

(c) Promote

(d) Allocate

examples of agis1

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Examples of AGIs

Providers of professional development

Funders of professional development

examples of agis2

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Examples of AGIs

Uses of national performance evaluations

Consultation with teacher organizations

what s next

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

What’s Next
  • From the wheel to assessing the strength of teacher policy systems…

Strength of teacher entrants

Strength of school leadership

Opportunities and information

Accountability and consequences

Alignment

Equity

Regulatory structure of the teacher labor market

products that are being developed

MOTIVATION & OBJECTIVES

METHODOLOGY

DATA EXAMPLES & USES

Products that are being Developed
  • Website with comprehensive data on teacher policies
  • Comparative reports analyzing patterns and trends in teacher policies
  • In-depth reports on specific topics
thanks

Thanks!

apaglayan@worldbank.org