The “ISMS” - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The “ISMS”

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  1. The “ISMS”

  2. Nationalism • Nationalism incorporated culture into music. • Until now, French, German, and Italian music dominated.

  3. RUSSIA THE MIGHTY FIVE • Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov (1844-1908) • Wrote “Scheherazade” and “CappriccioEspagnol” • Modest Mussorgsky (1839-1881) • Alexander Borodin (1833-1887) • Cesar Cui (1835-1918) • Mily Balakirev (1837-1910)

  4. THE MIGHTY FIVE • Wanted to promote Russian music • Used native instruments, folklore, legends, history, and folksongs. The Mighty Five EXCLUDED Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky (1840-1893) because he was too cosmopolitan.

  5. Tchaikovsky • Composed The Nutcracker, Swan Lake, 1812 Overture

  6. Impressionism

  7. Impressionism avoids clear lines, is blurred, and subtle. It is connected to art – impressionistic paintings by Monet, van Gogh, etc.

  8. Impressionism in france • Claude Debussy (1862-1918) • Born in Paris, France • Studied piano and composition at the Paris Conservatory • Maurice Ravel (1875-1937) • Studied composition at the Paris Conservatory • Was denied the Prix de Rome FOUR times and was outraged • Drove the ambulance at the front lines of WWI • Friends with George Gershwin (jazz influence)

  9. More “isms” • Neoclassicism • New music inspired by the Baroque and Classical periods

  10. Igor stravinsky (1882-1971) Born in St. Petersburg, Russia Father was a bass in the St. Petersburg opera, but urged Stravinsky to pursue a more practical career. Stravinsky studied law, then composition at the St. Petersburg Conservatory with Rimsky-Korsakov.

  11. Stravinsky • Composed for the Ballet Russe (important ballet company in Russia) • Escaped to Switzerland during the war • 1920 – Lived in France • 1939 – WWII (death of his daughter, wife, and mother) • Moved to the US to lecture at Harvard • After 1 year, he moved to LA, became a US citized in 1945. • 1969 – Moved to NYC (died there)

  12. Important compositions • Wrote many ballets including: • Rite of Spring • Firebird

  13. Expressionism • Atonal Music • Rejection of Impressionism • Expressed one’s “inner world” as described by Freud • Main Composer was Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951)

  14. Arnold Schoenberg (1874-1951) • Born in Vienna • Violin, Composed • He was self-taught • Served in WWI • Known for his 12 tone method – atonal, used 12 note tone rows • 1925 – Professor at Berlin Academy of the Arts • Compositions include string music, operas, piano music; “PierrotLunaire”

  15. Aleatoric or Chance music • Everyday sounds as music • Never the same twice • John Cage – wrote a piece called 4 min 33 sec

  16. American music • George Gershwin (1898-1937) • Russian-Jewish immigrant parents • Born in Brooklyn, NY • Excelled in sports • 1910 – started piano lessons • Jobs – earned $15/week playing piano and was a song plugger for Remick Music Co. • Compositions – musical theater and jazz • Porgy & Bess, Rhapsody in Blue, I Got Rhythm

  17. George Gershwin “I Got Rhythm”

  18. American Music • Aaron Copland (1900-1990) • Born Brooklyn, NY • Russian-Jewish Parents • Studied music as a child, then in Paris • 1924 – Returned to the US • Wanted to compose music that would be identified as “Americana” and appeal to a variety of audiences • Used Jazz and Folk Songs in his music • “American Nationalism” • Compositions include: Rodeo, Appalachain Spring, Fanfare for the Common Man, Billy the Kid

  19. American Music • Leonard Bernstein (1918-1990) • Born in Massachusets • Parents were Russian Immigrants • Age 10 – piano, Age 13 – First piano recital and barmitzvah (dad gave him a baby grand piano) • Music major at Harvard • Met Aaron Copland (composition advisor) • Studied at Curtis Institute in Philly (PA) • Conductor of the NY Philharmonic and substitute conductor at Carnegie Hall • Wrote West Side Story, ballets, Candide • Died of cancer (smoker) in NYC in 1990