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Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment

Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment

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Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment

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  1. Teacher Feedback in Formative Classroom Assessment Susan M. Brookhart Presented February 27, 2008 At the University of Calgary Lecture Series International Perspectives on Student Assessment

  2. What is the role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment?

  3. External Regulation Internal Regulation

  4. Butler & Winne, 1995, p. 248

  5. Greene & Azevedo, 2007

  6. Teacher Feedback External Regulation Student Use of Feedback Internal Regulation

  7. Role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment • To provide information • Relevant to the learning task • Which the student perceives as information • And uses for internal regulation of learning • Cognitively, taking the next steps for improvement • Motivationally, understanding his/her control over the learning

  8. What kinds of feedback are most effective?

  9. What kinds of feedback best… • Provide information • Relevant to the learning task • Which the student perceives as information • And uses for internal regulation of learning • Cognitively, taking the next steps for improvement • Motivationally, understanding his/her control over the learning

  10. Feedback Strategies

  11. Timing • Immediate feedback for knowledge of facts (right/wrong) • Slight delay for more comprehensive reviews of student thinking and processing • Never delay feedback beyond when it would make a difference to students • As often as is practical, for all major assignments

  12. Timing • Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, & Kulik (1991)

  13. Amount • Prioritize – pick the most important point(s) • Choose points that relate to major learning goals • Consider student’s developmental level

  14. Amount • Kluger & DeNisi (1996) • Sadler (1989)

  15. Mode • Best mode for the message – would a comment in passing the student’s desk suffice? Conference needed? • Interactive feedback (talking with the student) is best when possible • Written feedback on written work or on assignment cover sheets • Use demonstration if “how to do something” is an issue or if student needs an example

  16. Mode • Evaluation vs. grading studies about “written feedback” • Modeling and social learning theory for demonstrations

  17. Audience • Individual feedback says “The teacher values my learning” • Group/class feedback works if most of the class missed the same concept on an assignment – becomes an opportunity for reteaching

  18. Audience • Classroom management and differentiated instruction literature • Johnston (2004) • Bloom (1984)

  19. Feedback Content (1)

  20. Feedback Content (2)

  21. Focus • When possible, describe both the work and the process – and their relationship • Comment on student’s self-regulation if the comment will foster self-efficacy • Avoid personal comments

  22. Focus • Hattie & Timperley (2007)

  23. Function • Describe • Don’t judge

  24. Function • Ryan, Connell, & Deci (1985) • Butler & Nisan (1986) • Crooks (1988) • Tunstall & Gipps (1996) • Black & Wiliam (1998)

  25. Comparison • Use criterion-referenced feedback for giving information about the work itself • Use self-referenced feedback for giving information about student processes or effort • Use self-referenced feedback for unsuccessful learners who need to see how they are making progress, not how far they are from the goal

  26. Comparison • Bangert-Drowns, Kulik, Kulik, & Morgan (1991) • Sadler (1989) • Classroom environment or classroom structure studies • Covington (1992) • Ames & Archer (1988)

  27. Valence • Use positive comments that describe what is well done • Accompany negative descriptions of the work with positive suggestions for improvement

  28. Valence • Typology of Teacher Feedback (Tunstall & Gipps, 1996, p. 394)

  29. Clarity • Use vocabulary and concepts the student will understand • Tailor amount and content of feedback to student’s developmental level

  30. Clarity • Sadler (1989)

  31. Specificity • How “specific” depends on the student and the task • Feedback should be specific enough that the student knows what to do, but not so specific that it’s done for him/her • Identify errors or types of errors, but correcting every one (e.g., copyediting or supplying right answers) doesn’t leave the student anything to do

  32. Specificity • Kluger & DeNisi (1996) • Sadler (1989)

  33. Tone • Choose words that communicate respect for the student and the work • Choose words that position the student as the agent • Choose words that cause students to think or wonder

  34. Tone • Johnston (2004) • Covington (1992)

  35. Conclusion • What is the role of teacher feedback in formative classroom assessment? • Part of the external regulation of learning • Feedback is what the teacher does but in the end what matters is what the student does • The role of feedback is to present students with the means, motive, and opportunity for internal regulation of learning.

  36. Conclusion • What kinds of feedback are most effective? • Discussion of research on feedback (including some major reviews) and other relevant literature in light of the realities of classroom practice • Classify findings into choices for teachers about feedback strategies and feedback content

  37. Conclusion • How to Give Good Feedback, coming out in September, 2008, ASCD • Academic literature review, this lecture • brookhart@duq.edu