RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION(RFID) Karin Mithamo CIS 580
Overview • Definition of RFID • How RFID Works • Problems with RFID • Current Applications • Potential Application • Database analyst and RFID
What is RFID? • Auto-ID technology • bar codes, • optical character readers and • biometric technologies, like retinal scans. • Radio frequency tags (chips) • to identify real objects, • retrieve information by enabling readers, and • Transmitting captured data to a computer system.
How RFID Works • Scanning Antenna • Radio frequency signals • radiation means of communication • Antenna receives signals from the tag, and • Passes the information to a system. • The scanning antennas can be permanently affixed to a surface or be handheld.
How RFID works Continued • Transponder – Programmed RFID tag • Passed through scanning antenna field, • Detects the activation signal, • Activates the RFID chip. • Transceiver • Tag Reader • Transmits microchip information to scanning antenna.
IC or microprocessor RFID Tag Transceiver Tag Reader antenna antenna RFID Hardware Magnetic / Inductive Coupling
RFID Tag Transceiver Tag Reader antenna RFID Hardware Transmission Coupling IC or microprocessor antenna
Types of Tags: Active Tags • Active Tags • On-board transceiver • Battery – must be replaced • Longer range- 60 to 300 feet • Application- Large bulky assets
Active Tags: Continued • Types of Active Tags • Transponders • Activated when they receive a signal from a reader. • Broadcast signal only when within range of a reader. • Application • toll payment collection and • checkpoint control.
Types of Active Tags • Beacons • Used in real-time locating systems (RTLS), to precisely locate an asset that needs to be tracked. • Emits a signal with its unique identifier at intervals. • The signal is picked up by at least three reader antennas placed around the border of the area where assets are being tracked. • Application : • distribution yards, and • large auto making manufacturing facilities.
Passive Tags • Passive Tags • Reflect energy • Power Source • Transmitter • Maintenance
Passive Tags • Frequency • Low frequency • High frequency or • Ultra-high frequency • Performance • Different at each frequency, • Light properties • Level of performance.
Types of Tags • Read Only • factory programmed • usually chipless • Read / Write • on-board memory • can save data • can change ID • higher cost
TECHNICAL PROBLEMS • Global Standards • Automatic Identification and Data Capture Techniques • Identification Cards and related devices • Identification and communication • Agricultural electronics • Road Transport and Traffic Telematics • Transportable Gas Cylinders • Operational Requirements • Identification of cylinders and contents
TECHNICAL PROBLEMS • System disruption • Electromagnetic Frequency • Low Battery • Reader Collision • Reader overlap • Tag Collision • Too many Tags
Security, privacy and ethics problems • Reading consent • Difficult removal • Post sale tag reading • Death of distance. • High-gain antenna • Linking to private numbers • Credit card Number
Current Applications • Livestock Tagging • Wild Animal Tracking • Electronic Article Surveillance (EAS) • Automated Toll Collection • Animal Husbandry • Vehicle Anti-Theft
More Applications • Passive / Secure Entry • Airline Baggage Tracking • Postal Package Tracking • Time and Attendance
Bobby has an old fashioned ear tag for identification. Livestock Tagging Meet Bobby the Cow
Tracking Penguins http://www.beitec.com/penguin.htm
Package Tracking Picture courtesy Texas Instruments
Potential Application: Grocery Store • Existence of Bar codes • Potential replacement • Unmet need: Speed of checkouts
Grocery Store Scenario • Several full carts slow down the checkout process. • Cost of tags relative to cashier
Enhanced Groceries Store Chain • Track products in the course of their entire existence. Diagram courtesy How Stuff Works
Grocery Store with RFID • All items in the store have RFID tag. • The cart is rung up in seconds with the help of an RFID transceiver
Other Potential RFID Applications • RFID in the Euro by 2005 • Xerox PARC Page Detection • Department of Defense • Immigrations Departments • Hospitals
Database Analyst and RFID • Company Analysis • Executive managers and technology • Financial factors • Value creation • Vendor analysis • Company Transition • Current System • Need for new System • Security and Privacy • Integrity • Data availability • Confidentiality
References AIM Global Network http://www.aimglobal.org Texas Instruments RFID Solutions http://www.ti.com/tiris/ RFID Journal .Inc http://www.rfidjournal.com/ http://www.technovelgy.com/ct/Technology