land development l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
LAND DEVELOPMENT PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
LAND DEVELOPMENT

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 130

LAND DEVELOPMENT - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 179 Views
  • Uploaded on

LAND DEVELOPMENT. MAKING LAND USEFUL WITH PROFIT. TYPES OF DEVELOPMENT. Residential: Single family, duplex, townhouse, apartments, and condominiums. Commercial: Professional office, stores, malls. Industrial: single developments and industrial parks. Recreational:

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'LAND DEVELOPMENT' - olencia


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
land development

LAND DEVELOPMENT

MAKING LAND USEFUL WITH PROFIT

types of development
TYPES OF DEVELOPMENT
  • Residential: Single family, duplex, townhouse, apartments, and condominiums.
  • Commercial: Professional office, stores, malls.
  • Industrial: single developments and industrial parks.
  • Recreational:
    • Amusement - land use, local impact, access, liability, population supply.
    • Recreation - private clubs and sporting
      • Parks – state and federal
    • Resorts – complete facility
      • Use or ownership shared
    • Residential – incorporate a residential development around recreational site.
concepts and roles of the land surveyor
CONCEPTS AND ROLES OF THE LAND SURVEYOR

Purpose of land development is to make the environment more useful and comfortable for humanity.

  • Must be done in an organized and planned manner.
  • Most often must be able to create a profit.
  • Must meet political; economic; and aesthetics, while maintaining solid engineering principles.
concepts and roles of the land surveyor4
CONCEPTS AND ROLES OF THE LAND SURVEYOR
  • Land Use Controls: exist to protect public health, safety and welfare.
    • Enabling Acts: passed in 1920’s – federal laws permitting states to pass zoning and subdivision laws.
  • Zoning Regulations: use of land-use controls to protect the rights of the individual property owner and rights of others with in the community
    • 3 Basic areas: residential, commercial, and industrial
    • Changed through exceptions and variances can occur – must shoe individual and public both benefit
concepts and roles of the land surveyor5
CONCEPTS AND ROLES OF THE LAND SURVEYOR
  • Land Subdivision Regulations:
    • State, county, municipal: Provides legal definition of a subdivision
      • Who can prepare
      • Monument requirements
      • Procedures for approval; design standards; construction requirements
      • Designed to protect individual to assure that access, utilities, drainage, open space, adequate building space, are all provided.
land surveyor s role
LAND SURVEYOR’S ROLE
  • The role of the land surveyor varies depending on state – some on design (Indiana)
  • At minimum: boundary survey; create subdivision; topographic survey and construction stakeout.
  • Can include: speaking for developer and limited design
    • State dependent: horizontal and vertical street alignment; sanitary and storm sewer, etc.
steps for a land development project
STEPS FOR A LAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
  • Est. at least 2nd order control traverse near boundary.
  • Complete boundary survey
  • Est. benchmark system
  • Prepare topographic map
  • Determine plan for streets, lots, utilities, etc.
  • Develop preliminary drawing
  • Obtain approval of preliminary design
  • Compute direction and distance of lots and streets, also engineering design
steps for a land development project8
STEPS FOR A LAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT
  • Prepare plat of subdivision; final topo map and engineering plans
  • Set all monuments
  • Obtain final approval
  • Have developer record plat and topo map
approval by municipal authorities
APPROVAL BY MUNICIPAL AUTHORITIES
  • Make sure zoning laws and subdivision ordinances are met.
  • Permits must be obtained
    • Streets and access entrance permits
    • Sewage facilities – sanitary and storm
    • Water system - EPA
    • Others as needed
  • Owner sill want municipality to take over maintenance of streets, sewer, water, etc.
    • Any items not to be dedicated – establish maintenance methods
two major requirements for approval
TWO MAJOR REQUIREMENTS FOR APPROVAL
  • Development must contribute to the value of adjacent tracts; comply to master plan and add to tax base.
  • All street and utility construction information provided.
overall land development projects include
OVERALL, LAND DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS INCLUDE:
  • Boundary and Topographic Surveys
  • Construction Surveys
  • Design and Construction of:
    • Access
    • Flood Control and Drainage Facilities
    • Potable Water
    • Collection and Treatment of solid and waterborne waste
    • Utilities
    • Recreation facilities
  • Coordination and Communication with Interest Groups
each project is different some of these differences include
EACH PROJECT IS DIFFERENTSome of these differences include:
  • What developer wants
  • Economic (available funds)
  • Existing conditions (large factor)
    • Develop project to use existing in best way
    • Never accept existing maps - check
interest groups to be worked with
INTEREST GROUPS TO BE WORKED WITH:
  • Governing bodies: municipal and county (planning commission)
  • Developer: Range from those who take pride in quality and a profit to those only interested in profit
    • Minimize delays and unneeded costs
    • Don’t let desire for profit overshadow duty
  • Contractor: Develop a plan that can be built
  • Home Buyer: create safe and pleasant area
    • Account for special populations
interest groups to be worked with14
INTEREST GROUPS TO BE WORKED WITH:
  • Public and Community: Increase overall value
    • Affects: traffic, taxes, schools, etc.
  • Environmentals: Concern with protecting and preserving natural environment
    • Environmental Impact Statements – large projects
  • Professionals: Engineers, Architects, etc.
    • Work for interest of client and are controlled and limited by regulations, codes, ethics, and standards.
platting process
PLATTING PROCESS
  • PRE APPLICATION
  • PRELIMINARY PLAT
  • FINAL PLAT
residential planning concepts
RESIDENTIAL PLANNING CONCEPTS

The actual planning of a subdivision is much more than just following a set of regulations.

  • Development Concepts:
    • Traditionally individual lots for single family dwellings with access streets
    • Other needs require dedication and each are zoned for single purpose
residential planning concepts17
RESIDENTIAL PLANNING CONCEPTS
  • PUD’s (Planned Unit Developments)
    • Integrated plan of residents, community shopping, recreation, open space, schools all mixed into small communities
    • Requires changes in zoning concepts
    • Generally large scope developments
  • Neighborhood Unit concept: residential neighborhood created around a central focus
  • Pattern based on lot arrangement
    • Conventional lot and block
    • Lots and streets with no open or recreation areas
    • Most intense land use, small lots
residential planning concepts18
RESIDENTIAL PLANNING CONCEPTS
  • Cluster Development
    • Lot and block system but side and/or back yard are developed for common parks or open spaces
    • Must have home owners association to care for commons areas
  • Pattern Based on Street Arrangement
    • Street location can dictate lot pattern
    • Rectangular – most common
      • Lot and block with square corners
      • Pattern is visually monotonous and disregards topo
      • Easy to design and develop
residential planning concepts19
RESIDENTIAL PLANNING CONCEPTS
  • Curvilinear: similar to rectangular but streets are curved to fit topography
    • Relieved repetition, slows speed, overall development can meet terrain
  • Radial: resembles spokes of a wheel
    • Useful if some central focus is needed or exists
    • Can cause problems with triangular lots
  • Linear: development along both sides of single road
residential planning concepts21
RESIDENTIAL PLANNING CONCEPTS
  • Loops and Cul-De-Sacs
    • Loop – U shaped, Cul-de-sac
    • Used to minimize repetition in rectangular or curvilinear systems
    • Also provides additional access
    • Can also be used to create small cluster communities within a development
  • Coving and Bayhome Concept
    • Purpose – developing land at a lower cost while creating superior communities
    • Provides more desired density
    • Increased safety
    • Decreased run off
coving
COVING
  • Coving combines both the bending of streets and setbacks creating more open space; generally the ROW is reduced 35%
  • The Basics:
    • Winding street pattern reduces or eliminates side streets and total number of individual streets
    • Lineal feet of streets typically reduced 20-40% while maintaining density and four way intersections minimized
    • Open space within entire community increased
    • Pedestrian walkways positioned to follow a curvilinear path separate from streets
coving23
COVING
  • Road remains at widths recommended
  • Layout reduces views of home sides or rears and homes rarely face another home front or rear which gives enhanced privacy
  • Streetscape consists of park like green space which meander from one side of the street to the other
  • Average lot size increases by 10-20% with extra typically in home fronts
bayhoming
BAYHOMING
  • Bayhoming uses the same concepts as coving but with more density
    • Coving is based on single family ownership, while with bayhomes the land and all items outside the home are held in common ownership with a homeowners association
    • Coving incorporates townhouses in a staggered format
  • Requirements:
    • Bayhomes have no individual lot, this allows for larger infrastructure reduction
    • While coving provides smooth curves with no staggering, Bayhomes can be greatly staggered creating more panoramic views from within homes
    • Parking is in rear with screened walls and landscaping hiding vehicles from public collector streets
    • Bayhomes have large front porches
    • Front of home is toward common areas
benefits and concepts of coving and bayhoming
BENEFITS AND CONCEPTS OF COVING AND BAYHOMING
  • PRESERVING THE SENSE OF THE COMMUNITY
  • PRIORITIZE VIEW
  • REDUCE INFRASTRUCTURE
  • AFFORDABILITY
  • SAFER STREETS
  • FEWER INTERSECTIONS
  • OPEN SPACES
  • MINIMIZE ERROSION AND SEDIMENT POLLUTION
  • MORE TREE SPACE
  • NO SQUARE LOTS
advantages to municipality
ADVANTAGES TO MUNICIPALITY
  • LESS INFRASTRUCTURE TO MAINTAIN
  • LESS LAW ENFORCEMENT DUE TO INCREASED SECURITY AND LACK OF INTERSECTIONS
  • DUE TO AVAILABLE SPACE, PEOPLE DO NOT FLEE URBAN SPRAWL
density
DENSITY
  • Population Density – density affecting quality of life.
    • To many creates noise, lack of privacy, and increased conflicts
    • To few can create lack of socialization, excess travel, and high cost of community services
    • Most commonly expressed as “Dwelling Units/Acre” (DC/Ac)
      • Gross density – units/acre of total land
      • Residential density – units/acres of land including streets, public facilities, etc.
      • Net density – units/acre of land devoted only to residence
      • Can also be a variable using people/acre
      • Typical residential density – below 2 DU/Ac is low with common design value of 2 – 5 DU/Ac
example
EXAMPLE

3 DU/AC IS DESIRED

25% LAND AREA IS STREETS AND OPEN AREA

THUS 75% OF 43560 OR 32670 ft² GOES INTO 3 LOTS

THUS 10890 ft²/ LOT TYPICAL LOT SIZE COULD BY 90’x120’

¾ x 43560 = 32670ft²

32670/ 3 = 10890ft²/lot

site analysis and suitability
SITE ANALYSIS AND SUITABILITY
  • USGS topo’s provide a rough source for this
  • Also check SCS and others for maps
  • Site Suitability: depends on viewpoint of person
    • Includes:
    • use which provides most profit
    • Use that provide maximum enjoyment and highest life quality
    • Use that preserves or improves the balance of nature and is least disruptive to the environment
topography and drainage patterns
TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE PATTERNS
  • Affects: streets, drainage, views, earthwork, erosion, environmental
    • Gently rolling terrain best - 2-5% slopes
    • 5-10% can also provide good sites with increased cost
    • Slopes over 20% require special considerations
    • Matching the topo is essential
  • Soils and geology: soil type and presence of rock
    • Depth of water table
  • Environmental factors: orientation and shape of sites
    • How to use natural features as a benefit
    • Sun angle, trees, noise, wildlife and aesthetic character of site
subdivision design principles and standards
SUBDIVISION DESIGN PRINCIPLES AND STANDARDS
  • Usual standards, develop a checklist
  • Geometric Principles
    • Streets, sidewalks, intersections, lots and easements all depend on geometric principles
    • Following them simplifies design and layout and balance and symmetry prevail
    • Follow terrain
    • Front lot lines should be straight or arcs and side lines should be either perpendicular or radial to street ROW
block and lot standards
BLOCK AND LOT STANDARDS
  • Blocks: directly relates to streets; not required
    • Length, shape, slope and general arrangement normally regulated
      • Max length normally between 1000’ – 1500’
      • Shape dependent on terrain and tract shape
  • Lots: must have satisfactory building site and be properly related to topography
    • Must have vehicle access to local street
    • Standards can specify minimum width and depth
      • Min width 70’ typical
      • Depth normally approx. 3 times width
      • 20’ – 50’ setback at front with 5’ – 10’ side and back
    • Avoid double frontage
land use create balance
LAND USE: CREATE BALANCE
  • Urban Land Institute
    • Large development – 35% non-residential
    • Small development – 25% non-residential
  • Streets: ROW dedicated – acceptance
    • Collector – 60’ ROW – 70’ ROW
      • Minimal individual access – purpose is to move traffic to arterial streets
    • Local – 50’ ROW – 60’ ROW
      • Access to lots, services and collector streets
      • Low speed (20 – 30 mph)
      • Allow for plantings, pedestrians, and bikeways
    • Alignment
      • Cul-de-sac streets normally have max length of 600’ – 1000’ with minimum radius of 50’ ROW and 40’ paved
      • Jogs (T-intersections) – prefer min of 125’ between
      • Reverse Curves – keep to min and use larger curve radius
      • Sight distance – hilly area – 100’; local streets – 200’; collector streets – 250’
land use create balance43
LAND USE: CREATE BALANCE
    • Vertical curves must have a minimum length equal to 10 – 20 times the algebraic difference in grades (%)
    • Max grade is normally 15% and minimum is 0.5%
    • Minimum radius for circular curves range from -200’ on local streets and 300’ for collector streets
    • Street alignment should minimize need for storm sewers
      • Follow ridges, parallel or perpendicular to contours, and along shallow swales.
  • Naming
    • Street: North – South streets
    • Avenue: East – West streets
    • Drive or Boulevard: Meandering streets
    • Road or Way: street that runs other than cardinal directions
    • Lane or Place: North – South Cul-de-sac streets
    • Circle or Court: East – West Cul-de-sac streets
land use create balance44
LAND USE: CREATE BALANCE
  • Intersections: Junctions of more than 2 streets, avoided
    • T intersection is preferred
    • Offsets between 4way intersections:
      • 150’ min local and 300’ collector
      • Angles: centerline intersect should be close to 90° with 75° being minimum
      • Streets should remain in tangent for 100’ min prior to PC
      • Grade should be relatively flat with max being 0.5% - 4%
      • Minimum sight distance at intersections = 90’
      • Minimum curb radius = 20’ local; 30’ collector
      • Sidewalk and Bikeway: one or both sides if needed – 4’ width minimum, 6’ better.
      • Easements: 15’ – 30’ minimum
design
DESIGN
  • Roadway
    • Locate Centerline
      • Direction and distance (PI-PI)
    • Develop Centerline Profile
      • Plot existing ground and special features
        • 1”-5’ or 10’ vertical and 1”-50’ or 100’ horizontal
      • Design proposed centerline: 0.4%-15% slopes
        • Stay as close as possible to existing ground
        • Avoid roller coaster
        • Balance cut and fill
        • Identify culvert locations and allow clearance
          • 20MPH – 10’ LENGTH / 1º CHANGE
          • 30MPH – 20’ LENGTH / 1º CHANGE
          • 40MPH – 35’ LENGTH / 1º CHANGE
          • MIN. VERTICLE CURVE LENGTH 75’-100’
design46
DESIGN
  • Pavement: Thickness based on AASHTO and Soil design based upon the lowest soil support values.
    • Normal: Rigid – PCC – 6”-10” dependent on loads
      • Flexible: Bituminous Concrete
        • Surface: 2 ½” – 4”
        • Base: 6” – 8”
        • Sub-base (Stone): 6” – 12”
      • A-3 (Oil and Chip)
        • Base 8”-12” granular with asphalt 3 times with chips
        • General alleys at most
design47
DESIGN
  • Roadway design:
    • Site study by traffic engineer to determine needs on site and effect of development on existing system
      • Site access; traffic circulation; traffic flow
    • Take care using one way streets
    • Streets often have other uses: bicycles; play and minimal on street parking
    • Streets have slow design speeds: 20-35 mph
    • Sight distance-critical Stopping distance: d= V2/30f d= braking distance in feet V=vehicle speed in MPH f=coefficient of friction
design49
DESIGN
  • Local street design guidelines (local streets)
  • Curb: Barrier; Mountable; V (depressed)
  • Parking: off street parking
    • Space width 9’-11’
    • Space length 18’-20’
    • Recreational vehicles (boat/trailer) 10’ x 40’
    • Make parking areas aesthetically pleasing
drainage systems
DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
  • Retention – No runoff
  • Detention – Controlled, limited runoff
  • Development will always cause additional runoff
    • Utilize topography to minimize amount to be handles
  • Drainage design based on average and 5-50 yr rainfall
    • Charts and info: West of 103°W longitude – NOAA Atlas 2; East of 103°W longitude – USWB TP-40 and/or NWS Hydro 35
  • Runoff depends on: permeability of soil; slope; topography; climate; and amount of rainfall
drainage systems51
DRAINAGE SYSTEMS
  • Soil types and Runoff (NRCS)
    • Group A: low runoff, high infiltration (sand/gravel) water transfer – 0.3”/hr
    • Group B: moderate infiltration, deep well drained soil (fine-course texture) water transmission – 0.15”-0.3”/hr
    • Group C: low infiltration; layered soil (mod.fine – fine texture) water transmission – 0.05”-0.15”/hr
    • Group D: high runoff, very low infiltration, clay soil in pan or layer near surface – water transmission – 0-0.05”/hr
  • Surface Roughness affects runoff: Coefficient of Roughness
    • Levels:
      • Smooth paved surfaces – 0.011
      • Cultivated – 0.05 – 0.17
      • Grassland: short – 0.15; dense – 0.24; Bermuda – 0.41
      • Woods: light underbrush – 0.40; heavy underbrush – 0.80
compute runoff based on nrcs methods
COMPUTE RUNOFF BASED ON NRCS METHODS
  • Determine the watershed area from the topo map
  • Establish the storm period and corresponding 24 hour rainfall
    • Storm period – intensity 2yr, 5yr, 10yr, 20yr, 25yr, 50yr, and 100yr
      • 10yr normally used, many use 25yr for safety
  • Calculate initial maximum retention after runoff begins
  • Calculate peak discharge for area

Use “Rational Method” Q=CiA Q=quantity of runoff in cu.ft/sec C=coefficient of runoff (ratio of water runoff to water falling) i=intensity of rainfall (inches/hour) A=drainage area (acres)

factors affecting site drainage
FACTORS AFFECTING SITE DRAINAGE
  • LOCATION OF SITE WITH RESPECT TO OFF-SITE STORM WATER
  • GENERAL LOT GRADING PLANS ESTABLISHED TO PROVIDE POSITIVE OVERALL PLAN
  • REQUIREMENTS AS TO STORM WATER RETENTION OR DISCHARGE RATES MUST BE MET.
  • MAXIMUM CARRY DISTANCE – LOCAL SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE OR ROAD AUTHORITY
storm sewer and culvert design
STORM SEWER AND CULVERT DESIGN
  • Must be determined based upon runoff computed and peak; slope and pipe characteristics
    • “Manning Formula” V=flow velocity (ft/sec) R=hydraulic radius (cross sectional area of flowing water/length of wetted surface of pipe) – in feet = D/4 (full pipe) S=expected slope (decimal) n=roughness factor (0.015 – 0.025)
    • Slope: min 10” pipe = 0.28%; 12” = 0.22%
      • Best to use 0.4%
      • Want to keep flow at 2-10 ft/sec
      • Open channel – compute same way
        • Slope: 2% - 10%
retention and detention facilities
RETENTION AND DETENTION FACILITIES
  • Retention facility has no discharge
  • Detention facility has limited discharge
    • Generally designed to hold runoff until existing stream can handle additional flow
    • Maximum discharge is limited to peak storm runoff rates
    • Can be achieved through lakes, ponds, subsurface basins, dutch (french drains),& sumps
system design
SYSTEM DESIGN
  • Two conditions exist either alone or in combination:
    • Site subject to sheet or overland flow
    • Site subject to channelized flow
  • Must realize that in residential development much additional runoff occurs: typical lot +1/2 ROW = 0.4 Ac.
    • House roof – 1600 sq ft
    • Driveway – 600 sq ft
    • Patio – 400 sq ft
    • Roadway – 1500 sq ft 4100 sq ft = 0.094 Ac or approx ¼ area
sedimentation and errosion control
SEDIMENTATION AND ERROSION CONTROL
  • Select sites with drainage patterns, topo and soils suitable for development
  • Incorporate:
    • Expose smallest area for least amount of time
    • Retain topsoil to recover graded areas and protect natural vegetation
    • Seclude plantings, seeding, mulching and stone surfacing as needed
    • Use sediment basins and silt traps
    • Install permanent vegetation and long term erosion protection

If lake or pond is included – a dead storage area for sedimentation should be included upstream of the lake.

sanitary sewer
SANITARY SEWER
  • See pages 498 – 554 in the text
  • Traditional collection systems (gravity flow) normal
  • U.S. EPA Program: Small Community Outreach and Education (SCORE) – U.S. EPA Bulletin (1992)
sanitary sewer59
SANITARY SEWER
  • 1 gal = 7.48 cu. ft.
  • Residence:
    • Typical per capita flow is 60-120 gal/day (per person)
    • Design should include max flows 6-10am and 6-10pm with low being 2am-6am
    • Max Daily Flow = 2x Average Daily Flow
    • Max Hourly Flow = 3x Average Daily Flow
  • Apartments:
    • 3 bedroom/4 person = 100 gal/day/person
  • Restaurant: 100 gal/day/seat
  • Hotel: 100 gal/day/bedroom
  • Service Station: 10 gal/day/car served
individual systems
INDIVIDUAL SYSTEMS
  • Should make sure they do not:
    • Contaminate drinking water supply
    • Allow insects, rodents or other disease carriers to multiply
    • Be accessible to children
    • Pollute or contaminate surface waters
    • Create foul odor and appearance
individual systems61
INDIVIDUAL SYSTEMS
  • Traditional: Septic & Absorption Field
  • Conventional Gravel Absorption Field: trench 12-36” wide with 14” course aggregate and perforated 4” pipe covered with geotextile
    • Percolation test: timing settlement of water over time
    • Length of absorption field directly related to soils absorption ability (perk test)
    • Sand filters – evaporation and absorption bed
      • small holding tank – field encased in sand
      • New method is to have it expanded over a large area and have plantings over it.
pump stations
PUMP STATIONS
  • Used to transport material under pressure, can not be tapped
  • Collection System:
    • Min pipe size = 8”
    • Place sewer either along ROW or at back lines
    • Separate from waterlines by 10’ horiz. and vert.
    • Manhole placed at all bends, intersections, changes in slope with no section longer than 400’
    • Manhole: precast; drop
    • Pump station with force main
    • Lift station
potable water systems
POTABLE WATER SYSTEMS
  • Pg 557-610 TEXT
  • Often last system to be designed
  • Must look at water source (FIRST)
  • Must look at Average and Maximum Daily Demand and Max. Hourly Demand
    • Normal daily use per capita = 50-150 gallons
  • Waterlines must maintain a min of 20 lb psi
  • Water storage tank – if large development may be beneficial
    • Fire storage reserve: 1000 gal/min x 2hr = 120,000 gal
    • One day reserve: 150 gal/person/day x 1000 people = 150,000 gal
    • These determine min tank size(23.5’dia x24’tall=75000 gal)
waterline
WATERLINE
  • 2 types: Loop System and Branch System
    • Each has gate valves at each intersection of mains and between main and fire hydrants
      • 4 way valves at all crosses
      • Other valves usually placed between 500’-1000’ intervals
    • Depth: based on frost penetration. 3.5’ in extreme Southern Illinois, 4’ in Carbondale, 4.5’-5’ in Champaign, and 5.5’-6’ in Chicago
    • Parts: piping (usually PVC) may require ductile – iron
      • Thrust block: block forms placed to transfer angular force to soil and needed to keep joints together.
waterline65
WATERLINE
  • Valves:
    • Shut off: gate or butterfly type placed in system for repair or emergency purposes
    • Check valve: control direction of water flow
    • Pressure Reducing Valve: reduce inlet pressure to a controlled outlet pressure
    • Altitude Control Valve: control flow in and out of tank
      • Often direct linked to pump stations
    • Air Release Valve: used to release trapped air at high points in lines
    • Back Flow Preventers: antisiphon valves used to protect safe water from contaminated systems
  • Laterals: service lines, normal size is ¾” to 1”
basic legal requirements state of illinois
BASIC LEGAL REQUIREMENTS: STATE OF ILLINOIS
  • A subdivision is required whenever land owner divides land into 2 or more tracts with any of them being less than 5 acres or new rights of access
  • EXCEPT: no subdivision required if:
    • The division into parcels 5 acres or more which does not involve any new streets or easements of access.
    • The division of lots or blocks of less than 1 acre in any recorded subdivision which does not involve any new streets or easements of access.
    • The sale or exchange of parcels of land between owners of adjoining and contiguous land.
basic legal requirements state of illinois67
BASIC LEGAL REQUIREMENTS: STATE OF ILLINOIS
  • Conveyance pf parcels for use as a right of way for railroads or other public utility facilities or pipelines which does not involve any new street or easement of access
  • Conveyance of land owned by railroad or other public utility which does not involve any new streets or easements of access.
  • Conveyance for highway or other public purposes or grants relating to the dedication of land for public use.
  • Conveyances made to correct descriptions
basic legal requirements state of illinois68
BASIC LEGAL REQUIREMENTS: STATE OF ILLINOIS
  • Sale or exchange of parcels into no more than 2 parts of a parcel that existed on July 17, 1959 and not involving any new streets or easements of access.
  • The sale of a single lot of less than 5 acres form a larger tract when survey is made by an IL Registered Land Surveyor. No more lots may be sold off based on tract dimensions and configuration of the larger tract on Oct. 1,1973. As long as it does not invalidate any local requirements.

The developer must have the tract surveyed and a plat of subdivision prepared by a RLS

the plat must show
The Plat MUST Show:
  • All public streets, alleys, easements
  • All parcels, tracts, blocks, and lots
    • Must have a progressive numbering system
    • Give exact dimensions
  • All angular linear data along exterior boundary
  • Names of all public streets, alleys, etc.
  • Reference must be made to permanent monuments from which future surveys can be made.
surveyor must establish in such a way as not to be disturbed good and sufficient monuments
Surveyor MUST establish, in such a way as not to be disturbed, good and sufficient monuments
  • Monuments must be set at all corners at each end of curves, and at all angle points
  • 2 monuments must be permanent(stone or reinforced concrete) and set at the extremities of the subdivision
a topographic map must be made of the area
A Topographic Map MUST be made of the area
  • Must show existing and proposed conditions
  • Must be the same scale and size as subdivision plat so it can be used as an overlay
filing of plats
FILING OF PLATS

Plat of Subdivision and topo map must be filed at County Recorder’s Office prior to sale of any lots!!!

Plat must contain the following certifications:

  • CERTIFICATE OF SURVEYOR
    • Legal description with name of subdivision
    • Certification as to location within or without corporate limits
filing of plats73
FILING OF PLATS
  • CERTIFICATE OF OWNER
    • Swear as to ownership
    • FEMA
    • Certify that construction will not change drainage of surface waters in such a way as to damage adjoining property and that surface water will be deposited into a water course which the owners have a right to use.
    • Dedicate street right of way and easements to public use
    • Waive and release all rights given by virtue of the Homestead Exemption Laws of the state.
    • School district in which located
filing of plats74
FILING OF PLATS
  • NOTARY PUBLIC CERTIFICATE
    • Certifies that owners signed plat before notary and of their own free will.
  • CERTIFICATE OF COUNTY CLERK
    • Certifies that tax records have been checked and property is free of taxes
  • CERTIFICATE OF GOVERNMENTAL BODIES
    • Certifies that subdivision has been approved
    • May be more than one (county and city)
  • CERTIFICATE OF PROFESSIONAL ENGINEER
    • Certifies that drainage will not cause damage to adjoining properties
    • Muse also certify Topo Map (drainage)
subdivision ordinance
SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE
  • May be county or municipal
  • All make state law a part of ordinance
  • Purpose is to regulate development and make sure compliance with engineering design practices
  • Definitions: all aspects and terms defined
  • Exceptions: any that exist above state law
subdivision ordinance76
SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE
  • GENERAL PROCESS:
  • Tentative or Preliminary Plat
    • Must provide a number of prints for review
      • Examined by the Co. Engineer and others
        • They note required changes or approval
    • Minimum Scale (1”=100’) & max sheet size given (24x36)
    • Must include: (typical)
      • Section lines, ¼ sec. lines, adjacent subdivision lines, adjacent streets and alleys, watercourses and other pertinent features
      • Existing utilities, drainage systems on and adjacent
      • Names of adjoining subdivisions and other areas must indicate present usage
      • Proposed streets and roads with width, names, alleys, lots, easements, building setbacks
      • Name of subdivision, subdivider, and surveyor
subdivision ordinance77
SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE
  • FINAL PLAT – generally a time period exists between tentative approval and length final must be approved in.

Requirements:

    • Material, size, lettering size
    • Date of preparation, north sign, rectangular system, material and scale
      • Title
    • Correct survey of boundary with description
      • Location, width, names of all roads, streets, alleys and other land dedicated to public
      • Lines, dimensions, and names of adjoining or abutting roads streets or alleys
subdivision ordinance78
SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE
  • Lot lines shown and lots and blocks numbered
    • Building lines and easements shown and dimensioned
  • Description and location of permanent survey markers
    • All lot corners, points of curvature, ROW intersections; changes in ROW and offset points must be monumented
      • Type of monument required (30” x ½”)
      • How monument set
      • Repeat state requirement for permanent (reinforced concrete or stone – 2 at extremities)
  • Minimum and/or maximum lot sizes and frontages
subdivision ordinance79
SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE
  • Design Requirements:
  • Layout shall preserve natural features of site.
  • Provide proper traffic circulation – prefer long blocks
    • Streets intersect at 90° preferred not less than 65°
    • Dead end streets no longer than 1320’ and have cul-de-sac with min radius
  • Layout to fit contours
  • Streets nor on boundary and no “spite strips”
  • Streets along State or County Highways shall provide access at intervals not less that ¼ mile
subdivision ordiance
SUBDIVISION ORDIANCE
  • Private roads discouraged
  • Minimum 50’ ROW and road way widths (20’-24’)
  • Street material and thickness - 8” stone + 3” bit. conc. - specs must conform to IDOT and max. grades (8%)
  • Easements: min. width and location
  • Building setbacks: width and location
  • Drainage requirements (storm, open, or mix)
  • Signage requirements
  • Water and sanitary sewer facilities described and req
subdivision ordinance81
SUBDIVISION ORDINANCE
  • Engineering Requirements:
  • Profile of streets (existing and proposed)
  • Typical cross section of roadway with surfacing
  • Drainage structures (surface and underground): location, size, type, and grade
  • Locate water courses and bodies of water (high and low elev.)
  • Sanitary sewer: plan and profile and location or source of treatment
  • Water system location
special considerations
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
  • Wetlands Determination Study
    • Based on Section 404 of Clean Water Act and Section of Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899
      • Jurisdiction of Corps of Engineers and EPA
      • Defined: area containing hydric soil, periodic flood water, or hydrophile plants (hydrophytic plants are plant life growing in water, soil, or on substrate which is periodically deficient in oxygen as a result of excessive water content.)
    • Areas where wetlands occur must have on-site inventory of dominant plant genus and species.
      • 50% of dominant plant types
special considerations83
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
  • Hydraulic soil – soil that is saturated, flooded, or ponded long enough during growing season to develop anaerobic conditions (lack of oxygen) in the upper parts.
special considerations84
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
  • Off site wetlands inventory
    • Locate development on USGS 7.5min and relate to wetland features that denote possible wetlands
    • Study National Wetlands Inventory map to determine potential wetland areas on site.
    • Study soil survey map (SCS) to determine if hydric soil exist.
    • Study aerial photos – potential wetlands
    • Review any available wetland studies in area
    • Make determination based on 1-5 conduct on site inspections to make finaldecision
wetlands
WETLANDS
  • Often surveyors are 1st to visit property and potential wetland info. Should be included in topo.
  • No uniform definition
    • Differ between regulatory bodies
    • 1987 Corp of Engineers “Wetlands Delineation Manual”
    • 1989 – “Federal Interagency Manual for Identifying and Delineating Wetlands”
  • Most wetlands in areas of low relief, topographic depressions.
    • Can also be found in all other areas with groundwater discharge
wetlands86
WETLANDS
  • Formal delineation takes extensive training, but wetlands are generally defined by:
    • Hydraulic soils
    • Hydrophytic vegetation
    • Wetland hydrology
  • Wetland Hydrology: presence of water
    • Soils saturated at or near surface or inundated for sufficient length of time to allow microorganisms to deplete available oxygen in the soils
    • Water does not have to be on surface
wetlands87
WETLANDS
    • Indicators:
      • Evidence of flooding
      • Water marks or stains on trees
      • Obvious standing water or soil saturation
      • Blackened or discolored fallen leaves
  • Wetland (Hydrophytic) vegetation
    • Plants that have adapted to growing in wet conditions
    • Field guides to wetland plants
    • Indicators:
      • Shallow root systems
      • Wind thrown and fallen leaves
      • Buttressed tree trunks
      • Inflated or floating stems or leaves
      • Trees with multiple trunks from same base
wetlands88
WETLANDS
  • Wetland (Hydric) soil
    • Biological and chemical process occurs that alters color of soil
    • Normally wet soils are grey or black with prominent orange or red iron stains
      • Soil colors – Munsell Soil Color Charts
    • Field indicators:
      • Grey or black colors
      • Sulfidic odors
      • Peat or muck accumulations
special considerations89
SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS
  • ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT
    • Based on Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 makes property owners liable for cleanup
    • Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization Act of 1986 limits liability if proper investigations were performed as to existence of substances prior to purchase
    • Any indication of potential hazards means owner is liable
4 basic laws of ecology
4 BASIC LAWS OF ECOLOGY
  • Everything is connected with everything else
  • Everything must go somewhere
  • Nature knows best
  • There is no such thing as a free lunch
environmental assessment and impact statement
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT AND IMPACT STATEMENT
  • NECESSARY TO:
    • Predict any change in each environmental constituent
    • Identify the scope of any change on each environmental descriptor
    • Determine the implications or significance of the anticipated change on each element
5 components for environmental impact
5 COMPONENTS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT
  • Environmental impact of the proposed action
  • Identify any adverse environmental effects which cannot be avoided
  • Range of feasible alternatives to achieve the initial problem objective or alternatives to the proposed action
  • Agency required to identify “the relationship productivity”
  • Requires agency to discuss the objections or issues raised by reviewers
intent of impact statements
INTENT OF IMPACT STATEMENTS
  • To provide a data base, documentation, and forecasts from which future decisions could be made.
    • To identify the extent of both recognized and potential losses, the implications of the losses, and prepare information in such a way so it can e understood by government and public
    • Many times developers would prepare their EIS into volumes with as much technical data as possible to try to get approval
  • EIS was to be a mechanism for integrated planning
    • Often is used as a reason to justify decisions by governmental bodies
      • Tie projects up for so long as to make them impractical
2 ways ecolocy can be used as a basis for planting design
2 WAYS ECOLOCY CAN BE USED AS A BASIS FOR PLANTING DESIGN
  • Essentially to guess what will work.
  • Plants are selected based on soil/climate, appearance and other relevant environmental determinants
3 divisions of plant types
3 DIVISIONS OF PLANT TYPES
  • CANOPY – those trees that define or limit overhead plane
  • UNDERSTORY – combination of small trees, large shrubs, and climbing vines under canopy trees
  • GROUND COVER – grasses, ground vines, and wildflowers
veg should be evaluated based on
VEG. SHOULD BE EVALUATED BASED ON:
  • Aesthetic value
  • Disease resistance
  • Life span of trees
  • Wind firmness
  • Wildlife value
  • Comfort index
  • Ability to withstand higher radiated heat from paved surfaces and buildings
  • Future growth with respect to utilities
utilizing trees in wooded area
UTILIZING TREES IN WOODED AREA
  • These trees have shallow roots: may be best to conserve in clumps
  • Many mature trees will not survive a violent change of habitat.
  • Changes in ground water (amounts and quality) can cause problems
  • Area around trees should not be filled (disturbs access of air, water, and minerals)
roles of plants in development
ROLES OF PLANTS IN DEVELOPMENT
  • Wind control
    • Obstruction
    • Filtration
    • Deflection
  • Erosion control
  • Energy conservation
  • Wildlife habitat
planting can be used
PLANTING CAN BE USED:
  • In combination with buildings to extend architectural lines or as a screen to enhance architecture
  • As skyline
  • To define sheltered areas or act as buffer between activity areas
  • Enhance, blocks, frames, a view for building site
  • As educational source
principles to consider when developing planting plan
PRINCIPLES TO CONSIDER WHEN DEVELOPING PLANTING PLAN:
  • Plan should reflect a predominance of one type of plant or a similar texture, color, or form within a grouping
  • Exercise restraint relative to the number of different plants used in plan
  • Select plants with common soil, climate, and water requirements
  • Maintenance of hedges is time consuming, consider growth habit and mature size
  • Develop plants so they do not rely on the quality of any particular tree or plant
plant selection based on at least one of these criteria
PLANT SELECTION BASED ON AT LEAST ONE OF THESE CRITERIA:
  • Plants ability to live and flourish in the specific environment
  • Knowledge as to existing trees on site and their healthy growth on adjacent sites
  • Plants that require low maintenance and/or low water amounts
  • Plants for a specific purpose (shade, contrast, color, and size)
climate and site
CLIMATE AND SITE
  • THINGS THAT CAN BE DONE:
  • Develop exterior spaces that utilize local climate norms and extremes to expand availability of thermanlly comfortable outdoor areas
  • Reduce thermal loads on buildings
climate and site103
CLIMATE AND SITE
  • FOUR BASIC CLIMATIC ELEMENTS
  • Solar radiation – reaches us in the form of direct, diffuse, and reflected radiation
    • 4 methods of control and modification
      • Admission
      • Obstruction
      • Filtration
      • Reflection
    • Vegetation: trees can absorb 60-90% of solar radiation
climate and site104
CLIMATE AND SITE
  • Air temperature – only minimum changes can be caused – relative measure of thermal energy in the air
    • Control and modification: by controlling solar radiation and air movement
    • Vegetation: air temperature is lowered due to evaporation process, but humidity levels increase. (this is often a small difference)
climate and site105
CLIMATE AND SITE
  • Relative humidity
  • only minimum changes can be caused
  • provide shade that does not limit air movement
  • Humidity can be increased byincluding water in areas
climate and site106
CLIMATE AND SITE
  • Air movement – to utilize the beneficial effects must be aware of how site characteristics affect air motion
    • Vegetation: when used to protect from cold winter winds it is a windbreak
    • Airflow is affected by shape and density of windbreak
    • Airflow is affected 5-10 times windbreak height on windward and up to 30 times height on leeward side
outdoor wildlife related activities
OUTDOOR WILDLIFE RELATED ACTIVITIES
  • 2001 National Survey of Fishing, Hunting and Wildlife Associated Recreation
  • Nationally
    • $108 billion spent on wildlife related activities
  • Illinois
    • $1.35 billion spent
development and application of outdoor recreation
DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION OF OUTDOOR RECREATION
  • Recreation is often a delivery of opportunities for individuals and society most often provided by government
  • Benefits include:
    • Economic development
    • Protection or preservation of the resource
    • Education and learning
    • Maintenance or improvement of physical health
process for planning
PROCESS FOR PLANNING
  • Determine which benefits are demanded from which areas
  • Determine the extent to which the resource base can be used to deliver benefits
  • Must take into account: budgets, technology, resource capability, current uses of resources, and non-recreational resource demands on area
  • Determine which management actions are to be used
follow up activities
FOLLOW UP ACTIVITIES
  • Monitoring the actions taken to determine if appropriate benefits are being developed
  • Monitor societies demands to see if original demands still exist
  • Wildlife recreation planning manuals and handbooks are being developed by Bureau of Land Management and Forest Service
when developing a recreational plan one should
WHEN DEVELOPING A RECREATIONAL PLAN ONE SHOULD:
  • Estimate demand for possible recreational activities
  • Conduct capability analysis of land and water in plan area to determine potential of existing resources
  • Determine what recreational opportunities already exist on site
  • Conduct suitability analysis to determine where and how recreational activities should be provided
when developing a recreational plan one should113
WHEN DEVELOPING A RECREATIONAL PLAN ONE SHOULD:
  • Incorporate recreational activities with other resource uses
  • Develop alternative use plans
  • Choose plan that reflects the most desirable use of resources
  • Develop activity and project plans consistent with resource use chosen.
projected demand increase 1980 mid 2000 s
PROJECTED DEMAND INCREASE 1980-MID 2000’S
  • Developed camping
  • Primitive camping
  • Backpacking
  • Hunting
  • Picnicking
  • Nature walks
  • Off road vehicle use
  • Sightseeing
  • Fishing
type of use divded into 6 recreation activity classes
TYPE OF USE DIVDED INTO 6 RECREATION ACTIVITY CLASSES
  • Primitive
  • Semi-primitive non motorized
  • Semi-primitive motorized
  • Roaded-natural
  • Semi-urban
  • urban
capability analysis
CAPABILITY ANALYSIS
  • Permits identification of inherent Recreational Opportunity potential of the resources and of inherent attractiveness of resource for recreation
criteria to identify potential
CRITERIA TO IDENTIFY POTENTIAL
  • Remoteness from sights and sounds of man and access by road
  • Size of area
  • Amount of irreversible evidence of man
  • Amount of apparent renewable resource modification
size of area requirements
SIZE OF AREA REQUIREMENTS
  • Primitive ≥ 5,000 acres
  • Semi-primitive ≥ 2,500 acres
  • Roaded Natural, Semi-urban, Urban ≥ 1 acre
investigate the present opportunities
INVESTIGATE THE PRESENT OPPORTUNITIES
  • LOOK FOR:
  • Evidence of use
  • Frequency of encounters of uses
  • User density per acre
  • Facility and site management
  • User regulation
suitabliity analysis and choosing an allocation
SUITABLIITY ANALYSIS AND CHOOSING AN ALLOCATION
  • Use the previous and look at:
  • Budget, technology, legislative and administrative policy, resource capability, and the use of resources to produce non-recreational outputs
  • Guidelines for selection capacities within the acceptable range
    • Low capabilities where landscape is open (little vegetative cover and flat topography)
    • High capabilities are selected where there are more potential
recreation attractors
RECREATION ATTRACTORS:
  • Power boating and waterskiing
  • Sailing
  • Ocean/lake/river swimming
  • Surfboarding or scuba diving
  • Fishing
  • Tent camping
  • R.V. camping
  • Golfing
  • Horseback riding
economics of recreation and planning
ECONOMICS OF RECREATION AND PLANNING
  • Massachusetts Bay Colony passed the Great Pond Act in 1641
    • Required that everybody of water 10 acres or more be kept open to public for fishing and hunting
  • Central Park in New York established in 1850’s
  • Late 1800’s saw creation of: Yosemite Valley, Yellowstone, Mackinac Island, Niagara Falls
  • Much of this through efforts of Teddy Roosevelt
  • Recreational planning still deals with 2 basic elements: man and land
today planners have 3 important tools
TODAY PLANNERS HAVE 3 IMPORTANT TOOLS:
  • Greater public awareness and support – no longer ignored
  • Adequate legislation
  • Ready availability of public monies - ?
site development criteria
SITE DEVELOPMENT CRITERIA
  • PROCESS:
  • Identify and categorize the capability of recreational use
  • Identification of recreational uses possible
  • Recreational activities/facilities are chosen based upon:
    • Appropriateness to site
    • Current demand
site development criteria125
SITE DEVELOPMENT CRITERIA
  • Sutegrate capability/suitability with recreational activity and facilities
  • Select site assessment indicators (unique natural characteristics of site)
  • Related site assessment indicators to Recreational Appropriateness Index
three use categories
THREE USE CATEGORIES:
  • Preservation (limited use) – areas unique and fragile
  • Passive Recreation (moderate use) – areas more numerous and capable of withstanding more human intervention
  • Active Recreation (intensive use) – areas resilient to intensive use by large groups for short periods/generally quite accessible
3 categories of locational suitable activities
3 CATEGORIES OF LOCATIONAL SUITABLE ACTIVITIES
  • WATER BASED
  • WATER ENHANCED
  • NON-WATER RELATED
planning should include
PLANNING SHOULD INCLUDE:
  • Development of a resource base inventory
  • Determine suitability of 3 management objectives
  • Identify conflicts where overlapping occurs
  • Develop balanced management program
economics of recreation
ECONOMICS OF RECREATION
  • Those activates which cost neither participant or others anything other than energy and imagination
  • Those conceived and undertaken for the purpose of making money
  • Public recreation which costs money – generally seen as responsibility of the government
recreationfacility are aplit into 3 elements
RECREATIONFACILITY ARE APLIT INTO 3 ELEMENTS:
  • Cost of land – purchase and or removal form tax base
  • Cost of capital improvements
  • Cost of maintenance and operation