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MODAL VERBS. Only used in one form ( no past, no –ing form, no –s in 3rd person singular). Negative : place not after the modal verb. never conjugated. MODAL VERBS. Always come before subject in interrogative sentences. Express an idea (possibility,necessity, obligation etc.

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slide2
Only used in one form

( no past, no –ing form, no –s in 3rd person singular)

Negative : place not after the modal verb

never conjugated

MODAL VERBS

Always come before subject in interrogative sentences

Express an idea (possibility,necessity,

obligation etc

Always followed by a main verb in the base form

slide3
CAN

PERMISSION OR

REQUEST

Can I call you later?

ABILITY/INABILITY

I can play the piano.

OPPORTUNITY TO DO SOMETHING/POSSIBILITY

I´m free tonight so we can go out.

slide4
CAN – affirmative and negative forms

I

You

He

She

It

We

they

  • + CAN
  • CAN´T CANNOT

Verb in the base form

+ complements

ATTENTION!

Can´t/cannot indicate impossibility

can negative form
CAN – negative form

I

You

He

She

It

We

You

they

MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM

+

COMPLEMENTS

+

?

CAN

could
COULD

PAST ABILITY

When I was young, I could ride a bike.

PAST OF CAN

.

POSSIBILITY

I think we could have another Gulf war.

MORE POLITE THAN CAN (REQUEST)

Could you open the door, please?

could affirmative and negative forms
COULD – affirmative and negative forms

I

YOU

HE

SHE

IT

WE

THEY

  • + COULD
  • COULD NOT
  • COULDN´T

MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM

+

COMPLEMENTS

ATTENTION!

COULD NOT

Suggests that it´s impossible for something to happen

could interrogative form
COULD – interrogative form

I

YOU

HE

SHE

IT

WE

THEY

MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM

+

COMPLEMENTS

+

?

COULD

slide9
MUST

OBLIGATION

(“must” involves the speaker´s authority or opinion)

You must go to bed, said her mum

DEDUCTION OR CENTAINTY

That must be Jerry, they said he is tall and has red hair.

must affirmative and negative
MUST – affirmative and negative

+ MUST

- MUST NOT

MUSTN´T

MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM

+

COMPLEMENTS

must not mustn t
MUST NOT = MUSTN´T

PROHIBITION

You must not swim in that river, it is full of crocodiles

must interrogative
MUST - interrogative

MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM

+

COMPLEMENTS

+

?

MUST

slide13
MAY

Possibility

He may run the marathon this year

Polite permission or request

May I go now? Yes, you may

may affirmative and negative forms
MAY – affirmative and negative forms

MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM

+

COMPLEMENTS

+ MAY

- MAY NOT

ATTENTION!

THERE IS NO ABBREVIATION FOR MAY NOT

may interrogative
MAY - interrogative

MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM

+

COMPLEMENTS

+

?

MAY

might
MIGHT

To say that you are not sure that something is going to happen

She might come to my house later.

might affirmative and negative forms
MIGHT – affirmative and negative forms

+ MIGHT

- MIGHT NOT

MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM

+

COMPLEMENTS

ATTENTION!

IT´S NOT USUALLY USED IN INTERROGATIVE FORM.

have has to
HAVE/HAS TO

OBLIGATION

( based in a law or rule)

I have to wear a uniform in my school

don t doesn t have to
DON´T/DOESN´T HAVE TO

It is not necessary to do something, you can do it if you want but it is not necessary

She doesn´t have to finish her composition tonight

have has to affirmative form
HAVE/HAS TO – affirmative form

MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM

+

COMPLEMENTS

She

He

it

HAS

TO

I

YOU

WE

THEY

MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM

+

COMPLEMENTS

HAVE

TO

have to interrogative form
HAVE TO – interrogative form

MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM

+

COMPLEMENTS

+

?

He

She

It

HAVE

TO

DOES

MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM

+

COMPLEMENTS

+

?

I

YOU

WE

THEY

HAVE

TO

DO

should
SHOULD

ADVICE

SUGGESTIONS

CRITICISM

EXPECTATIONS

This film should be good.

You should stop smoking.

You shouldn’t have done it!

should affirmative and negative forms
SHOULD – affirmative and negative forms
  • + SHOULD
  • SHOULD NOT
  • SHOULDN´T

MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM

+

COMPLEMENTS

should interrogative form
SHOULD – interrogative form

MAIN VERB IN THE BASE FORM

+

COMPLEMENTS

+

?

SHOULD

had better
HAD BETTER

GIVE ADVICE

It is stronger than should and means that if the person doesn’t follow the advice, s/he can have negative consequences.

You had better not eat so much. The doctor told you that you are overweight.

had better affirmative and negative forms
HAD BETTER – affirmative and negative forms

+

HAD BETTER

´D BETTER

-

HAD BETTER NOT

´D BETTER NOT

MAIN VERB

IN THE BASE FORM

+

COMPLEMENTS

ATTENTION!

IT´S NOT OFTEN USED IN THE INTERROGATIVE

ought to
OUGHT TO

Advice or recommendations

Assumption or expectation

Strong probability(often with the idea that something is deserved)

You ought to stop smoking.

Jim ought to get the promotion.

This stock ought to increase in value.

Mark ought not drink so much

ought to affirmative and negative forms
OUGHT TO – affirmative and negative forms

+

Ought to

-

Ought not

Main verb in the base form

+

complements

ATTENTION!

NOT USED IN INTERROGATIVE

shall
SHALL

SUGGESTION

Shall we go to the movies?

ONLY USED IN INTERROGATIVE AND AFFIRMATIVE 1ST PERSON SINGULAR AND PLURAL

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