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ADDICTION 101 An Introduction to Substance Use. THE PROCESS OF ADDICTION & RECOVERY Presented by: Tim Dueck, MSW, RSW. What is a Drug? A drug is any substance other than food which changes the way the body or mind functions. Drugs may or may not have medicinal properties or purposes.

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addiction 101 an introduction to substance use
ADDICTION 101An Introduction to Substance Use

THE PROCESS OF

ADDICTION & RECOVERY

Presented by:

Tim Dueck, MSW, RSW

slide2
What is a Drug?A drug is any substance other than food which changes the way the body or mind functions.
  • Drugs may or may not have medicinal properties or purposes.
  • Drugs can come from plants or be made in labs.
  • Drugs can be legal, illegal, helpful or harmful.
substance use appropriate use
Substance Use - Appropriate Use
  • To get better if you are ill (doctor’s prescription).
  • To reduce pain from illness or injury.
  • To prevent illness (inoculation).
  • To manage mental illness by

balancing brain chemistry.

  • To help the body do things it can’t do on its own (e.g. make insulin).
psychoactive drugs
Psychoactive Drugs

Definition:Drugs that work on the mind or on behaviour.

Psychoactive drugs alter your mood and the way you think and act.

  • Caffeine Marijuana
  • Nicotine LSD
  • Ritalin Xanax
  • Cocaine Valium
  • Alcohol Heroin
why do people use drugs
Why Do People Use Drugs?
  • Forget problems
  • Get high
  • Lose or gain weight
  • Relax, energize
  • Go to sleep, stay awake
  • Boredom, depression
  • Gain confidence
  • Be cool, socialize, friends
  • Experience altered states
why do people use drugs1
Why Do People Use Drugs?

cont’d

  • Symbol of rebellion
  • Sex
  • Sports
  • Religious ritual
  • Have fun, excitement
  • Reduce anxiety
  • Experiment
  • Avoid withdrawal if dependant
  • Reduce pain (i.e. physical, emotional, etc.)
slide7

Substance Abuse / MisuseMisuse or Abuse - any use of a drug that causes personal problems such as health, work, relationship, legal, financial emotional.

  • Too much - taking too much at one time or taking smaller doses more often.
  • Too long - taking the drug after it is no longer needed; extending the prescription.
  • Improper Use - taking the drug for a different illness / complaint. Taking another person’s prescription.

Frequent forms of abuse:

substance abuse misuse
Substance Abuse / Misuse

cont’d

  • Improper Combination - Combinations of drugs can produce unwanted, dangerous effects - even death (e.g. alcohol and tranquilizers).

Frequent forms of abuse:

You do not have to be an addict / alcoholic to have a problem with substances.

slide9

DSM IV - Definition of Substance DependenceCriteria: A person demonstrates 3 or more of the following, occurring at any time in a 12 month period:

  • Tolerance as defined by either,

a) a need for markedly increased amounts to achieve intoxication, or

b) a markedly diminished effect with continued use of the same amount.

  • Withdrawal as manifested by either,

a) the characteristic withdrawal syndrome for the substance.

b) the same (or closely related) substances are taken to relieve or avoid symptoms.

  • Amount / Duration: The substance is taken in larger amounts or over a longer period than was intended.
slide10

DSM IV - Definition of Substance Dependence

cont’d

  • Control: There is a persistent desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control substance use.
  • Time: A great deal of time is spent in activities necessary to obtain the substance (e.g. visiting doctors); use the substance (chain smoking); or recover from its effects.
  • Activities / Commitments: Important social, occupational and recreational activities are given up due to substance use.
  • Negative Consequences: The substance use is continued despite persistent or recurrent physical or psychological problems that are likely to have been caused or exacerbated by the substance (e.g. current cocaine use despite depression that is induced by the drug).
addiction a practical definition t he 3 c s
Addiction - a practical definitionThe 3 “C’s”
  • Control - there are repeated attempts to cut back or control use, with episodes or loss of control in between.
  • Compulsion - a person experiences a sense that they must use. Can be due to tolerance, withdrawal or psychological need.
  • Consequences - substance use is continued despite significant negative consequences.
other definition
Other Definition

Substance abuse is any drug use that breaks healthy connections with family, friends and society.

risk factors personal factors
Risk Factors -Personal Factors
  • Lack of attachment to healthy adults/mainstream culture
  • Genetic / Biological factors / Drug effects
  • Personal characteristics (e.g. high vulnerability to anxiety / depression; impulsiveness; etc.)
  • Health / Mental Illness
  • Sex / Gender
  • Early drug use
risk factors external factors
Risk Factors -External Factors
  • Family of Origin
  • Abuse from the family and others
  • Culture
  • External Stressors e.g. poverty; job stress; single parenting; unemployment; divorce
  • Exposure to Trauma e.g. natural disaster; civil war; international conflict, rape, etc
  • Availability of Substances
  • Peer Group
slide15
Possible functions:It can be useful to understand what processes maintain an addiction after drug use is no longer enjoyable.
  • provides role / identity / friends
  • helps forget the past
  • a way of avoiding responsibilities
  • withdrawal from intimacy
  • stave off physical withdrawal
  • slow suicide or self-punishment
  • acting out self hate
slide16

Addiction to Other ExperiencesSince many of the factors which promote and maintain addiction are psychological, or social, people can develop addictions to other human behaviours.

  • Sex
  • Gambling
  • Exercise
  • Pornography
  • Shopping
  • Internet
  • Television
  • Role-playing games
non users refers to people who choose to abstain from substance use
Non-UsersRefers to people who choose to abstain from substance use.

Some reasons include:

  • Personal choice for health, personal or social, or family reasons.
  • Membership in particular religious or cultural groups.
  • Negative experiences of long-term substance abuse / addiction.
  • Deciding that using is unpleasant or dangerous.
experimental use refers to the first few times a person tries alcohol or other drugs
Experimental UseRefers to the first few times a person tries alcohol or other drugs.

Possible contributing factors:

1. Willingness to try the drug.

2. Friends or acquaintances that use.

3. A sense of safety about the drug and the setting.

Possible reasons for experimenting include:

* Boredom * Need to Belong

* Curiosity * Depression

* Peer Pressure

* Desire for stimulating or exciting alternatives

slide20

Experimental Use

cont’d

Key Concept:

In experimentation, people are exploring their relationship with the substance.

  • If they don’t enjoy the effects, they go back to non-use.
  • If they do, they may become social users.
experimental use
Experimental Use

cont’d

Risks:

  • Using too much and / or taking too strong a dose due to inexperience.
  • Beginners do not know how much their body can handle.
  • They often are teenagers, bingeing with the intention of getting drunk / high.
  • If they are using street drugs, they often don’t know the source / the dealer / manufacturer.
slide22
Social UseRefers to using a substance in social settings. It is one factor in the event but is not the main purpose of the gathering.

Key Concepts:

  • Using does not take priority over other life activities and experiences.

Examples of Social Use:

  • No aspect of a person’s life is affected negatively.
  • To socialize.
  • To celebrate important occasions.
slide23
Instrumental UseUsing a substance as an instrument to fulfill a purpose, often seeking pleasure or avoiding pain.

Pleasure Seeking:

  • Fun, feelings of power and control.
  • Experiencing altered states and perceptions.
  • Reduces inhibitions.

Avoiding Pain

  • Psychological: suppress negative feelings such as anger, guilt, shame, grief, boredom, etc.
  • Physical: seek relief from physical discomfort.
slide24
Habitual useDrinking / drugging on a regular basis, potentially increasing risk for problems in one or more areas of a person’s life.

Key Concepts:

  • Problem use is generally characterized by frequent use of substance.
  • Problems may emerge in areas of:
        • * Relationships
        • * Work / School
        • * Health
        • * Finances
        • * Legal Status
  • Social life and circumstances may narrow to include only other users and social functions involving using.
  • A person is not considered dependant at this point and still has some choice about their usage.
compulsive use the person experiences an overwhelming physical and or psychological need to use
Compulsive UseThe person experiences an overwhelming physical and / or psychological need to use.

Key Concepts: A person experiences:

  • Physical Dependence, including:

a) Tolerance - a need for increasing doses to feel the same high.

b) Withdrawal - characteristic of the particular drug; usually the opposite effect of the high.

compulsive use
Compulsive Use

cont’d

  • Psychological Dependence

a) - an all-consuming focus on the drug (getting it, getting high, dealing with coming down, finding more); brain chemistry has changed.

b) - person experiences no choice about using and feels no control over the amount consumed.

slide28
Binge UseRefers to heavy drinking or drugging on a sporadic basis, with periods of little or no use in between.

Key Concepts:

  • Binge use can be as problematic as regular use.
  • Binge drinking is often associated with higher levels of:
      • * hostility and aggression
      • * police altercations
      • * domestic violence
      • * work problems
      • * hospital admissions (in comparison to heavy, steady users)

The unpredictable nature of binge use can create a destructive set of stressors for those involved in the user’s life.

stages of recovery
Stages of Recovery

Early Recovery: Getting Clean

  • Concrete changes in daily living
  • Adequate sleep, diet, exercise
  • Staying away from those who are using
  • Building support; education
stages of recovery1
Stages of Recovery

Middle Recovery: Stabilization

  • Able to turn energies to family, work, relationships, friendships
  • Support, life skills, relaxation, stress management
  • Less focus on using
stages of recovery2
Stages of Recovery

Late Recovery: Maintenance

  • Insight into early trauma
  • Healing, repairing self-esteem
aspects of recovery
Aspects of Recovery:
  • Recognition
  • Cessation
  • Education
  • Support
  • Counselling
  • Relapse Prevention
  • Dealing with Underlying Issues
relapse
Relapse

Definition:

  • Relapse: Return to previous behaviors
relapse factors
Relapse Factors

Common Triggers of Relapse

Individual

  • Unpleasant feelings
  • Unpleasant physical states
  • Positive emotional states
  • Testing personal control
  • Urges, cravings
relapse factors1
Relapse Factors

Common Triggers of Relapse (cont.)

Interpersonal

  • Enhancing good feelings
  • Social Pressure
  • Conflict with others
personal relapse factors
Personal Relapse Factors
  • People – former ‘using’ friends (i.e. dealers, partiers, etc.)
  • Places – former ‘using’ settings (i.e. pubs, crack-houses, etc.)
  • Things – former ‘using’ objects / paraphernalia (i.e. pipes, etc.)
personal relapse factors1
Personal Relapse Factors
  • Times – former ‘using’ rituals (i.e. beer after work, etc.)
  • Activities – previously associated with substance use (i.e. pool, darts, etc.)
  • Emotional states – emotions previously associated with substance use (i.e. anger, etc.)
  • Events – events formerly associated with substance use (i.e. concerts, etc.)
blaming
Blaming
  • Addiction is often maintained by the process of blaming (people, events, myself, etc)
  • Blaming occurs through the process of projection
  • Healing from this requires both insight and the willingness to take responsibility for one’s life
  • Blaming is looking backwards, responsibility is about looking forwards
processing a relapse
Processing a Relapse
  • A relapse is not inevitable but it is a common experience in the recovery process. It can be an opportunity to learn:
  • What was the trigger(s)?
  • What was the high risk situations?
  • What will one do differently in the future?
  • How did the person manage to stop drinking / drugging?
  • How was this lapse / relapse different from the last one? In what ways is the person stronger / wiser?
  • What does the person know now that they
  • did not know before?
relevance
Motivational information has the greatest impact.

Always tailor discussion to each person.

Disease status or risk

Family or social situation

Age, gender

Prior experience in recovery

Relevance
risks
Risks
  • Highlight the risks of continued substance use and also the risks of change.
    • Ask the person to outline

potential consequences

and benefits on both sides

of issue.

    • Emphasize that loss may

occur whenever life changes

are made.

rewards
Rewards
  • Ask the patient to identify the benefits of using as well as potential benefits of ending substance use.
  • Improved health
    • Feel better physically
    • Not worry about

hurting loved ones

    • Modeling healthy lifestyle

choices to children

roadblocks
Roadblocks
  • Assist person to identify barriers to making change.
    • Lack of belief in ability to change
    • Withdrawal symptoms
    • Fear of failure
repetition
Repetition
  • Reinforce the motivational messages at every visit.
  • Re-enforce to those not yet ready to make changes that when they are ready to discuss substance use, you are there to help.