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Blood . Chapter 10. Agenda. Characteristic of Blood Components Functions of Components Blood Cell Formation Clotting Blood Typing. Composition and Function . Only fluid tissue Both solid and liquid components Connective tissue – protects, supports and binds together other body tissues

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Chapter 10


  • Characteristic of Blood

  • Components

  • Functions of Components

  • Blood Cell Formation

  • Clotting

  • Blood Typing

Composition and function
Composition and Function

  • Only fluid tissue

  • Both solid and liquid components

  • Connective tissue – protects, supports and binds together other body tissues

    • Blood – formed elements suspended in plasma

    • Collagen and elastin absent, but proteins visible as fibrin during clotting

Components of blood
Components of Blood

Figure 10.1

% of total volume of blood sample that is rbc = hematocrit

Physical characteristics
Physical Characteristics

  • Opaque, sticky, metallic taste

  • Color varies depending on arterial or venous blood, O2 level

  • Heavier and 5x thicker than H2O

  • Alkaline, pH 7.35-7.45

  • Temp = 100.4°F

  • 8% body weight, healthy man 6 quarts


  • ~90% H2O

  • Dissolved substances include – nutrients, salts (electrolytes), respiratory gases, hormones, plasma proteins, wastes and products of metabolism

  • Helps distribute heat from cell metabolism

Plasma proteins
Plasma Proteins

  • Plasma proteins – most made by liver

    • Albumin – shuttle, buffer, stabilizes osmotic pressure

    • Not taken up by cells, unlike nutrients or other substances

    • Antibodies (Ab) – immunity

    • Clotting proteins

    • Remains fairly constant in healthy person

      • Drastic changes – stimulates liver to make more proteins

      • When too acidic or basic – kidneys and respiratory systems help restore to homeostatis

Formed elements rbc
Formed Elements - RBC

  • Erythrocytes far out number other cells

  • Carry O2 in blood

  • Anucleate

  • Very few organelles

  • Hemoglobin – Fe bearing protein, transports O2

  • Shape – SA to vol. ratio, gas exchange

  • Lack mitochondria

    • What do Mitochondria do?

Figure 10.3a

Hemoglobin in blood
Hemoglobin in blood

  • The more hemoglobin in RBC, the more O2 transported

  • Hemoglobin slightly higher in men

    • Men 13-18g/ml

    • Women 12-16g/ml

  • Single blood cell has ~250 mil. Hemoglobin molecules

    • How many O2 molecules is that?

Sickle cell anemia
Sickle Cell Anemia

  • Anemia – loss of O2 carrying ability

  • Cells become sickle shaped

    • unload O2

    • O2 is low in blood

      • Exercise

      • Stress

      • Anxiety

  • Rupture, dam vessels

  • Single a.a. change in 2 of 4 chains

  • Evolutionary advantage in areas with malaria

Figure 10.3

Leukocytes white blood cells
Leukocytes – White Blood Cells

  • Only complete cell in blood

  • Body’s defense

  • Move in and out of blood into tissue – diapedesis

  • Positive chemotaxis – respond to chemicals secreted by damaged cells

  • Move by ameboid motion

  • Destroy invaders, remove dead dying cells

    • Remember the eye?

Leukocytosis vs leukopenia
Leukocytosis vs Leukopenia

  • WBC mobilized, body increases production

    • Can double w/in 2 hours

    • Total WBC count over 11,000 cells/mm3 is leukocytosis

      • Indicates infection

  • Low WBC count is leukopenia

    • Caused by drugs like corticosteriods, anticancer drugs

    • Diseases such as cyclical neutropenia

Leukemia and infectious mononucleosis
Leukemia and Infectious Mononucleosis

  • Excessive production of abnormal WBC

  • Leukemia – bone marrow cancerous, pumps out immature WBC that can’t do job, leaves person open to infectious disease

    • Other blood cell lines crowed out, leads to bleeding and anemia

  • Mononucleosis - caused by EBV.

Wbc granulocytes
WBC - Granulocytes

Table 10.2 (1 of 2

Wbc agranulocytes
WBC - Agranulocytes

Never let monkeys eat bananas

Table 10.2 (2 of 2)


  • Not typical cell

  • Fragments of multinucleate megakaryocyte

  • Platelets anucleate

  • Clotting process in plasma when blood vessels rupture or broken

Figure 10.2


  • Occurs in red bone marrow = myeloid tissue

    • Where is this in adults?

  • # of type of cell produced depends on body’s need and stimuli

  • After maturation, released into blood stream

  • 100 billion new cells everyday!

Formation of formed elements
Formation of formed elements

  • All formed elements derived from hemocytoblast (type of stem cell) in red marrow

  • Development differs, but once committed can’t change path

  • Two decendents

Figure 10.4

Formation of rbc
Formation of RBC

  • Anulceate – can’t synthesize proteins, grow, or divide

  • Become rigid and fragment at 100-120 days

    • Eliminated by phagocytes in liver, spleen, and other tissues

    • Lost cells replaced in red marrow

  • Developing RBC divide many times, produce large amount of hemoglobin

  • Nucleus and organelles ejected, cells collapse = reticulocyte (still contains some RER)

  • Enter blood, w/in 2 days eject RER, become erythrocytes

Controlling rate of rbc production
Controlling Rate of RBC Production

  • Erythropoietin

  • Small amount in blood at all times

  • Kidneys secrete when O2 levels in blood drop

  • Targets bone marrow

  • High O2 depresses erythropoietin release

  • NOT # of RBC in blood, but O2, how effective are the RBC

Figure 10.5

Formation of wbcs and platelets
Formation of WBCs and Platelets

  • Also controlled by hormones

  • Thrombopoietin - platelets

  • Colony Stimulating Factor (CSF) or Interleukins - WBCs

    • Prompt red marrow to produce new WBC and platelets

    • Enhance ability of mature leukocytes to fight

  • Released in response to chemical signals

    • Inflammatory chemicals, bacterial toxins

Hemostasis clotting
Hemostasis - Clotting

  • Break or tear of vessel walls

    • Fast, localized response

    • Components of plasma and some released by platelets and injured tissue

  • 3 steps

    • Vascular Spasms

    • Platelet Plug

    • Coagulation

  • 3-6 minutes, immediately triggering factors inactivated, endothelium repaired, clot broken down

  • Gauze and pressure?

Figure 10.6

Blood diseases
Blood Diseases

  • Hemophilia – lack of clotting factors

    • Group of disorders

    • Bleeding into joints painful and debilitating

    • Require transfusions of plasma or injections of clotting factors

  • Thrombus – clot in unbroken vessel

    • What problems can this cause?

    • Free floating Thrombus = embolus

    • What problems when an embolus lodges somewhere?

Human blood groups
Human Blood Groups

  • Antigen (Ag) – substance body identifies as foreign, stimulates Ab production or other means of defense

  • Antibodies (Ab) – proteins that recognize Ag

  • Agglutination – Ab bind Ag, cause clumping and then eventual lysed

  • 4 Blood Types

    • O, AB, A, B

Human blood groups1
Human Blood Groups

  • On plasma membrane of RBCs are Ag

  • We do not have Ab against the Ag on our own RBC

Table 10.3

Rh factor
Rh Factor

  • Rh antigen on cell

  • Most humans are Rh +

  • Rh antibodies are not automatically formed in Rh – individuals, requires sensitization

    • 1st transfusion of Rh + no reaction

    • 2nd time and after immune response, destroys RBCs

    • Pregnant Rh - women get RhoGAM shot

      • w/o mom’s Ab can cross placenta destroy babies RBC = hemolytic disease, fetal transfusions

Blood typing
Blood Typing

Figure 10.8