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Russian Federation Russian Federation PowerPoint Presentation
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Russian Federation Russian Federation

Russian Federation Russian Federation

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Russian Federation Russian Federation

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  1. Russian FederationRussian Federation

  2. Russian Federation • Area: 17 million sq km (~2x the size of US) • Capital: Moscow • Population: 139 million (~1/3 size of US) • Literacy rate: 99% • Life expectancy: 66 yrs (~12 yrs younger than US) • Independence: 1991 • Constitution: 1993

  3. National Pop Growth: resulting from a surplus (or deficit) of births over deaths and the balance of migrants entering and leaving a countryAverage: -0.47%

  4. 11 Time Zones

  5. Geographic Setting • Geographic Setting • Largest country in world • Majority of country is north of 49th degree latitude (U.S. – Canada border) • Abundance of Natural Resources that exist in inhospitable or inaccessible geographic locations • oil, natural gas

  6. Early Tsarist Rule • First tsars/czars were princes of Moscow who cooperated with Mongol rulers in the 13th century • “Tsars” = “Caesars” of ancient Rome • Autocratic to protect themselves against invasion and attack • Tsars official head of Eastern Orthodox Church, political and religious leaders

  7. “Western” Tsars • Peter the Great • Ruled late 17th and early 18th century • Introduced western technology and culture to Russia • Catherine the Great • Late 18th century • “Enlightened Despot” – interested and read Enlightenment ideas, she ruled absolutely but with the good of the people in mind

  8. 19th Century Alexander II • Freed Russian serfs • Set up regional zemstvas (assemblies) • Alexander III reacted to assassination by undoing reforms and intensifying efforts of secret police

  9. Lenin and the Bolsheviks • Mensheviks– Russian Marxists who believed that socialist revolutions would first take place in industrialized countries such as Germany and England, Russians would have to wait to modernize • Vladimir Lenin – Communist who disagreed with Mensheviks, he argued for democratic-centralism, or a “vanguard” leadership group to lead the revolution in the name of the people • Bolsheviks – followers of Lenin, practice Marxism-Leninism, took control of Russian government in late 1917 (October Revolution).

  10. Lenin & Bolsheviks continued • 1918 civil war broke out in Russia between the White Army, led by Russian military leaders and backed by the Allies, and the Red Army led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks. Red Army victorious. • New Economic Policy (NEP) – instituted by Lenin following civil war, allowed for a great deal of private ownership to exist under a centralized leadership • 1922 Lenin becomes first Premier (head of government) of Soviet Union

  11. Stalin: Man of Steel • Ally of Lenin; fought in Red Army • Lenin appointed Stalin as General Secretary in 1922 • Soon after, Lenin suffered stroke; Lenin grew disillusioned with Stalin and criticized his ambition and drive for excessive power • Stalin controlled job appointments so that eventually everyone owed their position to him • General Secretary of the Party became the de facto leader of the country up until Gorbachev

  12. Stalinism • Stalin places Communist Party (CPSU) at center of control • Nomenklatura – process of selecting individuals from lower levels within party (Kept a file for anybody who was somebody) • Central Committee: group of 300 party leaders = top government officials • Politburo: group of 12 men from the Central Committee who ran the country, all government agencies and departments at their disposal • General Secretary: head of the Politburo, “dictator” of the country (Stalin was General Secretary from 1927–1953)

  13. Stalinism • Collectivization & Industrialization • Replaced the NEP with “collective farms” • Private land ownership abolished • Five-Year Plans: ambitious goals for production of heavy industry such as oil, steel, and electricity • Gosplan: Central State Planning Commission, in charge of Five-Year Plans, became the center for the economy, determined production and distribution of all goods • Stalinism –collectivization and industrialization, carried out by central planning, executed with force and brutality

  14. Stalin’s Foreign Policy • Primary concern internal development • Signed Non-Aggression Pact with Nazi Germany in 1939 • After Nazis invade Soviet Union in 1940, Stalin joins the Allies • Red Army drives Nazis out of SU

  15. The Purges • Execution of millions of Soviet citizens • Stalin obsessed with disloyalty • Generals, Central Committee members, and Politburo officials purged as a result of Stalin’s paranoia (Trotsky) • Legitimacy: standard of living increases under Stalin; jobs, retirement benefits, roads, electricity

  16. Khrushchev • Succeeds Stalin • Decentralization of economic decision-making • Lessens censorship • Diplomatic/military failure of the Cuban Missile Crisis leads to removal as General Secretary

  17. Brezhnev • Succeeds Khrushchev • Hard-line, conservative member of Communist party • Ends reforms • Détente • Easing of relations with US • Détente ends with the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in 1979

  18. Gorbachev • Takes over as General Secretary in the mid-1980’s • Younger generation • Educated, more “westernized” then previous leaders • Initiates a wave of reforms: • Glasnost • Perestroika • Demokratizatsiia

  19. Glasnost – “Openness” • Open criticism of government and policies • Open market relations • Pragmatic economic policy • Less secretive government

  20. Perestroika – “Restructuring” • Loosened controls of the Comm Party • Economic Restructuring • Modernization • Transfer economic power from central government to private hands and market economy • Authorization of privately owned companies • Penalties for under-performing state factories • Price reforms • Encouragement of joint ventures with foreign companies • Leasing of farm land outside the collective farms

  21. Demokratizatsiia • Gorbachev wanted to insert some democratic characteristics into the old Soviet structure • Maintain Communist Party control • Reforms included: • New Congress of People’s Deputies w/ directly elected representatives • New position of “President” selected by Congress • Increasing levels of displeasure w/ govt from both liberal and conservative members of Communist Party

  22. Failed Revolution of 1991 (that actually ends up being kind of successful) • Led by “Conservatives” (those opposed to Gorbachev’s reforms) • Head of the KGB (NSA of SU) • Top military advisers • Gorbachev arrested by conspirators • Boris Yeltsin, who was democratically elected President (Gor. was PM and favored a diff. pres. Candidate), denounces the coup • Gorbachev restored to power, but by December 1991 eleven Soviet republics declare independence • Gorbachev officially announces dissolution of SU

  23. Boris Yeltsin • Radical • Attempts “western-style” democracy • “Shock Therapy” economic reforms (Immediate market economy) • Economy does not respond • Conflict between Yeltsin and the Duma • Hires/fires numerous PMs • Alcoholic & frequently ill; erratic political behavior • Resigns • Vladimir Putin, Yeltsin’s PM, takes over and wins the 2000 & 2004 elections

  24. Putin and Medvedev • Putin • President 2000-2008 • Aggressively contained oligarchs’ power • Centralized power • Medvedev • Elected Pres in 2008 • Putin serves as PM

  25. The Russian State • Presidency • Prime Minister • Legislature • Bureaucracy • Oligarchy • Judiciary • Military

  26. Legitimacy • Low, partly because changes are a drastic departure from the past • Recent evidence that country is stabilizing under Putin. • Putin uses authoritarian strategies to solidify Russia’s weak, illiberal democracy • Historically Russia’s political legitimacy has been based on strong, centralized, autocratic rule: • Tsars • Communist rule • Democratic-Centralism: rule by a few for the benefit of the many • Stalinism changed the regime to totalitarianism • Constitution of 1993 – provided for a strong president, although power of the president can technically be checked by popular elections and the Duma

  27. Semi-Presidential • Powers of the President • Appoints the prime minister and cabinet – Duma must approve prime minister’s appointment, if they reject the president’s nominee three times, the president may dissolve the Duma • Issue decrees that have force of law– Cabinet has great deal of power, Duma can not censure Cabinet according to Constitution of 1993 • Dissolve the Duma– done by Yeltsin during legislative coup attempt of 1993 • Prime Minister: relationship between PM and President unclear, but no vice-president so if anything happens to president the PM assumes the office

  28. Duma Lower House 450 deputies Chosen by proportional representation Passes bills, can override pres veto Confirms president’s political appointments Can call for a vote of no-confidence in PM Pres can ignore until 2nd vote Most legis introduced by pres Federation Council Upper House 2 per 89 regions 1 selected by governor, 1 selected by regional legis Does not make legis Approve budget and tax bills Power to delay legislation On paper, Federation Council can change boundaries of republics, ratify use of armed forces, and appoint and remove judges. These powers have yet to be used. Bicameral Legislature

  29. Judiciary • Supreme Court • Created by 1993 Constitution • Serves as final court of appeals in criminal & civil cases • Constitutional Court • Created by 1993 Constitution • 19 members • Appointed by president and confirmed by Federation Council • Rule of Law • Judiciary not very independent • Presumption of innocence not followed • Corruption serious problem

  30. Military • Suffered significant humiliation from the late 1980’s to early 21st century • Withdrawal from Afghanistan • Defeated by Chechen guerrillas in 1994-1996 conflict • Often ill-equipped, Russian soldiers had to feed themselves and went unpaid for months • Mixed success in Georgian conflict

  31. Political Institutions • Although the Soviet Union was highly centralized, it still maintained a federal government structure • Current regime consisting of 89 regions, 21 of which are ethnically non-Russian by majority • 21 republics • 48 oblasts • 6 Krais • 10 autonomous regions • 1 autonomous oblast • 2 federal cities • Each region bound by treaty to Federation, not all have officially signed on (Chechnya) • Many republics ruled themselves independently, but Putin cracked down • Putin ended direct election of regional governors, now nominated by president and confirmed by regional legislatures

  32. Voting • Referendum • Pres can call fornational vote on important issues • Duma Elections • 450 seats • Used to be half SMD, half proportional • Now all proportional, party must get 7% to get any seats • Presidential Elections • Law restricts ability of small, regional parties to gain reps • Questions abt honesty • Putin and Medvedev won with wide majorities

  33. Russian Political Parties • Began forming after Revolution of 1991 • Some formed around particular leaders • Some formed around particular issues • Agrarian Party

  34. United Russia • Merger between “Fatherland All-Russia” Party and the “United Party of Russia” • United Party put together by oligarch Boris Berezovsky and other business leaders to support Putin • United Russia won 221/450 Duma seats in 2004 • Putin won re-election in 2004 as United Russia candidate • Hard to define other than that it is pro-Putin

  35. Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF) • 1995 elections held 157/450 Duma seats • After parliamentary election of 2003 only retained 51 Duma seats • Party is less reformist than other parties • Opposed the reforms initiated by Gorbachev • Emphasizes central planning and nationalism • Would like to see Russia regain territories it lost after SU dissolution

  36. Liberal Democratic Party • Controversial party • Headed by Vladimir Zhirinovsky • Extreme nationalist • Anti-semitic • Sexist • Said he would use nuclear weapons on Japan if he were elected • 2000 presidential election, he received 2.7% of vote • 11% of vote in 2003 Duma elections (won 37 seats)