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The Russian Federation

The Russian Federation

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The Russian Federation

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  1. The Russian Federation Chapter 4

  2. Population: 142.4 million Territory: 6.593 million sq. miles Year of Independence: 1991 Year of Current Constitution: 1993 Head of State: President Medvedev (United Russia) Head of Government: Premier Putin (United Russia) – former 2 term President Leader of United Russia Putin can run for President again in 2012 80%+ Popularity with Russians Language: Russian, other languages of ethnic nationalities Religion: Russian Orthodox 70-80%; Other Christian 1-2%; Muslim 8-9%; Buddhist 0.6%; Jewish 0.3% Country Bio: Russia

  3. Federal Breakdown - Russia

  4. Former Soviet States

  5. Russian Population1950 - 2010

  6. End of the USSR Shock Therapy/ Economic Crisis Yeltsin – New Constitution Putin/United Russia Putin/United Russia Medvedev/ Putin/United Russia Elections/Protests

  7. The Ukraine

  8. 2010 Presidential Election

  9. Viktor Yushchenko’s Orange Revolution During the Presidential campaign in late ‘04 and early ‘05, Yushenko was poisoned by Dioxin (it was suggested it was Yellow Rain, a bio-weapon used by Russia in Afghan. Ukraine’s Orange Revolution protest led to a rerun of the runoff election because of Claims of electoral fraud

  10. Alexander ValterovickLitvinenko Granted asylum in Great Britain Died from Polonium-laced sushi Anna Politikovskaya wrote that Litvinenko was assassinated on Putin’s order. She was a vocal Critic of the President and the war In Chechnya. Found murdered Execution style Andre Lugovoi, wanted by British authorities for Litvinenko’s murder, became a member of the Duma in 2007 as a Liberal Democrat and now has immunity!

  11. YuliaTymoshenko Victor Yanukovych Won 2010 election on the 3rd Try. Arrest warrant has now Been issued Former P.M. sentenced to 7 years In prison for abuse of power and embezzlement

  12. The Making of the Modern Russian State Critical Junctures: Founding of the Soviet Union Pre-1917 = patrimonial state Post 1917 = Vladmimir Lenin and Bolshevik Revolution Ruble (RUB) US$1 = 35 RUB

  13. “Land, Peace, and Bread” The Bolsheviks and Soviet Power a. Marxists (what does that mean?) b. Democratic centralism c. Vanguard party d. 1922 = U.S.S.R. est. THE SOVIET STATE STRUCTURE Party Institutions > Government Institutions Politiburo Top party organ. Made all important policy National Level Communist Party (CPSU) Supreme Soviet Regional level communist party Regional level Government Nomenkiatura System used to fill key positions (in government and industry) with Politically reliable individuals (Communist party members). The Word also refers collectively to the People in these posts Local level communist party Local level government

  14. 3. The Stalin Revolution (1929-1953) a. consolidation of power b. collectivization - how can you combat collectivism (as a citizen)? c. media censorship; state control of the arts d. global superpower status after WWII e. NATO v. Warsaw Pact = Cold War

  15. 4. Perestroika and Glasnost (Mikhail Gorbachev) Intent was to adapt not Destroy communism Economic restructuring Openness 1989- 50% of population was ethnically Russian. Glasnost + ethnic diversity = demands for autonomy

  16. Regime Change (1991-1993) New Union Treaty Reform proposed by Gorby responding to pressures from below Disperse central government power to the republics (aka devolution) Intended to save the USSR Hardliners desired a Return to the USSR’s Glory days

  17. The Vodka Putsch August 19-21, 1991 SOVIET HARDLINERS Led by VP Gennady Yanayev Defense Minister Prime Minister Key CPSU members REBELS Yeltsin, President of the RSFSR, led resistance At the RUSSIAN (not Soviet) White House Russia was in a “war of laws” With the USSR And passing laws Which contradicted USSR laws GORBY Held captive @ his Crimean Dacha— Reported as “sick”

  18. Russian White House Aug. 1991 Yeltsin made his stand against the Hardliner coup-plotters. Much of the Military refused to fire on civilians

  19. The New Russian Regime Communist regime collapsed in 1991. A new constitution was written and passed By referendum in 1993 Yeltsin dedicated to western-style democracy and market economy Four pillars of economic reform: 1. lift price controls 2. encourage small businesses and entrepreneurs 3. privatize state-owned enterprises 4. open economy to international influence CPI increased 2500% and RW decreased 50% 1994 =80% transformed Joint stock companies Insider privatization

  20. Dual Executive President “Head of State” Popularly elected by runoff Term: 6 years Traditionally focuses on: Security, Foreign Affairs, & Federal issues Prime Minister “Head of Gov” Nominated by Pres. And Confirmed by Duma Term: 6 years Traditionally focuses on: Economy Nominates Confirm Fed. Council “Upper House’ 2 appointed Senators for each of Russia’s 84 regions DUMA Lower House 450 members Half elected by PR half by FPTP

  21. Dual Executive President All report directly Prime Minister Can be removed by the DUMA w/ 2 repeat votes of no confidence w/in 3 month period Foreign Ministry Federal Security Service Defense Ministry **Ministers do not require Parliamentary approval

  22. Legislative Branch- Federal Assembly DUMA Lower House 450 members Half elected by PR half by FPTP Fed. Council “Upper House’ 2 appointed Senators for each of Russia’s 84 regions - National Proportional Representation system - Council of 10 members - 32 committees - Elects its own speaker (Boris Gryzlov) • - Represent Russia’s constituent • Federal units • Party factions play no role • Political loyalty and prominent • businessmen Per Constitution: parliament powers in the legislative And budgetary areas Few women in the DUMA or F.C.; primarily Russian male elites

  23. The Judiciary • 1991- Constitutional Court est. • Nominated by President and approved by Federal Council • Vehicle for resolving conflicts of individual rights and • Conformity of regional laws w/ constitutional requirements • 19 judges proposed by President; approved by Fed. Council • Supreme Court- civil, criminal, administrative cases • Superior Court of Arbitration- economic issues

  24. What they say it Looks like What it’s Turning into FEDERAL UNITARY According to the Constitution Asymmetrical Federalism Asymmetrical federalism 83 Constitunt Units

  25. Power Vertical Introduced by Putin as a unified and hierarchical Structure of the executive power going from the National to local level. Added federal layer on Top of already existing Federal districts. Governors now Appointed by the Pres. With approval from Regional legislature. 3 no votes = Pres. Can Disband legislature and Call new elections! Governors then appoint 1 Senator

  26. Policy-making Process Who can propose legislation = Federal government, president, regional legislatures, Individual deputies, and some judicial bodies Under Putin = % of legislation initiated by executive has increased and is Passed by DUMA • How a bill becomes a law- Russian Style • Approved by both houses of the parliament in 3 readings and signed by Pres. • Pres. Veto- can be overridden by 2/3 vote of both houses • Presidential decrees = no consultation with Parliament (Executive Order?) • Justification for the centralization of power has been corruption and enforcement

  27. Russian Economy Late 1990s = Russian economic depression Obstacles to attempts at economic reform: - weak state institutions = no effective tax collection system, lack of banking regulation, and poor enforcement of health, safety, and labor standards - fed corruption and criminality = private security forces, mafia, etc. - Inability to exert influence over regional authorities - increased power of business oligarchs (state capture)

  28. Continued reforms under Putin: - 2000: 13% flat tax instituted (considered easier to enforce) - budget surplus replaced budget deficit - 2007- debt burden down to 3% of GDP - reigning in the oligarchs (selectively of course)

  29. “We pretend to work, They pretend to pay us” • - Plagued by low-quality and • Shortages • Housing shortages • Low productivity • Poor work discipline • Little incentive for • Outstanding achievement • And innovation • Soviet era: • Free health care • Low-cost access to essential goods and services • Maternity leave • Child benefits • Disability pensions • Mass education- postsecondary ed. free • Guaranteed employment and job security Created a culture where most Still value less profit driven and More equality/collective good

  30. 2005 monetarization of social benefits • Replacing services that were free to • Disadvantaged groups with modest • Monetary payments • National Projects (2005) to focus on 4 areas: • 1. health care • 2. education • 3. housing • 4. agriculture • Intended to address issues in social sector • And reverse declining population Child #2 = doubling of child support payments and large monetary bonus Child #3 = free land for house/dacha construction

  31. Russia in the global economy - issues attracting foreign investment - Germany, United States, and Cyprus; foreign investors are prohibited from controlling majority share in some sectors - August 22, 2012: became member of WTO - Most important trade partners: 1994 = Ukraine  2008 = Germany, Netherlands, Italy, and China

  32. Political Parties and the Party System Shift for single-party to multiparty system 2007 = 13 registered parties; 11 appeared on ballot for DUMA; 4 won seats 2001 = 7 registered parties Culture/socialization is again an issue Nationalist/patriotic Forces, identity issues National self assertion Traditional left, critical Of market reform; mildly nationalistic Liberal/reform forces Support Western-type Market reform Centrist “parties of power” Political elite

  33. Dominant Party = United Russia • Political machine politics • Reinforced by Putin’s ability to • Appoint governors • Appeals to law and order and • Moderate reform • Other political parties: • 1, Communist Party of the Russian Federation • Democracy, justice, equality, patriotism • Support among older Russians

  34. Liberal Democratic Party of Russia - isn’t liberal or democratic in its platform  - it is nationalist and populist - antiwestern sentiment A Just Russia - supports Socialist principles

  35. Elections Respectable turnout = 60-70% - extensive media coverage for national elections - campaigning as early as 1 yr. prior Pre-2003 elections considered fair and free 2003-2004 election and 2007-2008 - concerns of slanted media coverage Pre-2007 = proportional representation w/ winner take all districts - voters could also vote against all candidates or parties - Communist Party and Liberal Dems. Strong support pre-2003 Post-2007 = 1 national proportional representation district w/ 7% threshold - party must have affiliates in more than ½ of regions of Russia (certain # of registered members in region) - against all removed in 2006

  36. Rise of United Russia Sharp decline in “opposition” parties since 1999 a. genuine popular support of Putin and Medvedev b. failure to develop appealing programs/lack attractive candidates c. slanted media coverage d. “carrot-and-stick” method = bandwagon effect Russia has not experienced a REAL TRANSFER of power from one political group to another a. 2012- Presidential terms moved to 6 years (from 4) DUMA from 4 to 5

  37. Sovereign Democracy Peronalistic authority, centralized leadership, authoritative truth, egalitarianism, And collectivism Traditional Soviet Values That prevail today Independent judiciary, free press, civil liberties, and competitive elections; still Desire strong political leadership Liberal Democratic Values Minus strong political Leadership; general support In Russia Russian democracy should Be adapted to Russian Traditions and conditions; Not based on Western model Sovereign Democracy

  38. Culture and Identity 80% ethnic Russian Minority Groups = Tatars (largest)- Muslim group in Tatarstan (Russian Republic) Bashkirs Muslim groups Ethnic groups of former Soviet Republics (Ukrainians/Armenians) 25 Million ethnic Russians living outside the Federation (hello Crimea) What does it mean to be Russian? - russkii= ethnic Russian; rossiiskii = various ethnicities making up Russian citizenry Anti-Semitism and anti-Muslim Nashi (ours) Russian Orthodox Church provides traditional Russian values; 1997 law made it difficult For new religious groups to organize

  39. Traditional family values = women carry out responsibility of child care; standard Of femininity inside/outside workplace Feminism not popular Public Activism 1. Gov’t. channeling through official forums - Civic Forum - Public Chamber = mechanism for public consultation and input; vehicle to create public support for gov’t. policy 2. The Other Russia = monthly protests on the 31st

  40. Media in Russia 1. TV = influence of government 2. Some newspapers and journalist offer critical analysis Since 1992 = 52 journalist murdered = 3rd most dangerous country for journalist 3. 140 out of 178 for press freedom

  41. Russian Politics in Comparative Perspective Further east you go in post-communist world, the more difficult transition Has been - less historical ties and exposure to Western European countries - private property, individualism, liberalism more foreign Demonstrates need for strong government institutions “resource curse” = heavy reliance on export income Progressing economically and regressing politically