Cattell 1905 1998 eysenck 1916 1997
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Cattell (1905-1998) & Eysenck (1916-1997). Factor Analysis. Statistics technique Based on correlations Correlation coefficient - a measure of the association between two variables 0 = no association +1 = strong positive association – 1 = strong negative association . Correlations.

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Cattell 1905 1998 eysenck 1916 1997

Cattell (1905-1998)& Eysenck (1916-1997)


Factor analysis
Factor Analysis

  • Statistics technique

  • Based on correlations

    • Correlation coefficient - a measure of the association between two variables

      • 0 = no association

      • +1 = strong positive association

      • –1 = strong negative association


Correlations
Correlations

high

low

low

high

low

high

Positive Correlation

Negative Correlation


Factor analysis1
Factor Analysis

  • Correlation matrix


  • Cluster analysis

    • Factor - cluster of highly correlated measures (another word for “trait”)


16 source traits measured by cattell s questionnaire 16pf

Warmth

Reasoning

Emotional Stability

Dominance

Liveliness

Rule-Consciousness

Social Boldness

Sensitivity

Vigilance

Abstractedness

Privateness

Apprehension

Openness to Change

Self-Reliance

Perfectionism

Tension

16 Source Traits Measured by Cattell’s Questionnaire “16PF”


The 16 factor theory cattell
The 16 Factor Theory: Cattell

  • surface traits:

    • traits that are correlated, but correlation is superficial (grouping them together does not really explain behavior)

  • source traits:

    • basic, underlying grouping of personality traits that cause behavior

    • Found 16 source traits

    • Constitutional source traits

    • Environmental-mold traits


Beyond personality tests
Beyond Personality Tests

  • Three Sources of Data

    • Q-data: questionnaire data (16PF, etc.)

    • T-data: objective test data (reaction time, etc.)

    • L-data: life record data (tickets, etc.)


Nomothetic and idiographic approaches
Nomothetic and Idiographic Approaches:

  • R-technique

    • nomothetic

    • studies groups

  • P-technique

    • idiographic

    • studies individuals


Eysenck s views of personality
Eysenck’s Views of Personality

  • Superfactors or types

    a. Extroversion (vs Introversion)

    b. Neuroticism (vs Stability)

    c. Psychoticism


Biological bases of personality
Biological Bases of Personality

  • Early version

    • emphasized excitation/inhibition

  • Later version

    • emphasized

      • the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS)

      • visceral brain (VB)


Is anatomy destiny
Is Anatomy Destiny?

  • Cattell: Some traits are heritable; others are environmental

  • Eysenck: Superfactors are heritable


Psychopathology
Psychopathology

Cattell: Two Approaches

  • Imbalance of normal traits

  • 12 Abnormal traits

    Eysenck

  • Abnormally high levels of the 3 superfactors


Psychotherapy
Psychotherapy

Cattell

  • Personality testing should precede therapy

  • Eclectic approach to therapy

    Eysenck

  • Personality testing should precede therapy

  • Only scientifically demonstrated therapies should be used (ie, behavior therapy okay, psychoanalysis not okay)



The 5 factor model

OPENNESS

CONSCIENTIOUSNESS

EXTRAVERSION

AGREEABLENESS

NEUROTICISM

"ocean"

The 5-factor model


Openness
openness

  • original

  • imaginative

  • daring

  • has broad interests

  • aesthetically sensitive

  • needs variety

  • liberal in values


Conscientiousness
Conscientiousness

  • careful

  • well-organized

  • punctual

  • ambitious

  • persevering


Extraversion
Extraversion

  • sociable

  • fun-loving

  • affectionate

  • friendly


Agreeableness
Agreeableness

  • forgiving

  • lenient

  • sympathetic

  • agreeable

  • softhearted


Neuroticism
Neuroticism

  • worried

  • insecure

  • self-conscious

  • temperamental


Heritability of the 5 factors
Heritability of the 5 factors

.36 extraversion

.28 agreeableness

.31 neuroticism

.28 conscientiousness

.46 openness

(Loehlin, 1992, p. 67)


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