Zhou Dynasty By: Haley Hernandez Jarrett Sippola Jim Edgar Lauren Turner Sara Cody Will Gordy
Human EnvironmentInteractions • Shang and Zhou Dynasties coexisted with each other being friendly at times, but warring with them at others • In the mid 11th century fighting broke out between the two for almost three years before the Zhou established their rule over all of China • The original Zhou capital was near present day Xi’an • To support the empire in the east and its other rulers, an eastern capital was built at Luoayong • Empire • Because of the large area of the Zhou dynasty it was split up into territories • Territories were walled of cities • Each territory had its own lord who was appointed by inheritance • Then in social classes came the fighting men followed by the peasants and slaves • Zhou was based on agricultural production which was done mostly by the peasants • These territories rebelled and defeated the original Zhou capital but from the east capital they fortified their military and political control over the territories • During this time when the Zhou Dynasty became much stronger was during the Iron Age, bringing improved irrigation techniques in turn bringing greater populations • The Zhou became unstable when it expanded into areas of non-china with the rise of these territories within the Zhou Dynasty • The Zhou Dynasty fell in anarchy and collapsed in the late 5th century
Politics Emperor Wen: founder of the Zhou Dynasty • 1122 – 256 B.C.E. • Emperor rules by mandate of heaven, the belief that dynasties will rise and fall according to the will of heaven, or the ancestors • Emperor • lived in the forbidden city (away from all others) • in full control but bound by duty • had few slaves • “The Son of Heaven” • Political authority controlled by Confucian values • Zhou Philosophy • Concept of heaven emerged • Universal force • Chose the emperor to rule (moral force) • If the emperor was evil, heaven would send natural disasters as a warning. If he didn’t heed the warnings then heaven would withdraw its mandate. Social and political order would break down and there would be a revolution.
Culture • Technology • Silk from silk worms • Iron (instead of bronze) • Copper for coins • Acupuncture • Horseback communication • Chariots and mounted cavalry • Architecture • Irregular walls of rammed earth for defense • Used earth and timber for many buildings • Some multistory buildings • Starting of Chinese bracketing system • Replaced roof tiles with thatch • Started using bricks • Science • Gan and Shi’s Astronomy Book • Mo Jing (physics, MoZi) • Art • Silk paintings • Murals • Musical instruments were still developing
Economics • “Ceremonial Lords of the Kingdoms” • Warfare between territories • Lost control of some territories in 700 B.C.E. • Legalism - strict adherence, or the principle of strict adherence, to law or prescription, especially to the letter rather than the spirit. • 4th century B.C.E. • Agriculture • Peasants planted crops • Planted crops in a square and the peasant’s crops would be planted on the outside and the emperor’s crops were on the inside • Zhou society was based on agriculture
Social • First dynasty to unite most of China under a single government • Divided into two parts: Western Zhou and Eastern Zhou • Western Zhou • Semi-nomadic clan • Peasants • were physically separated from other classes • Key element • Had supportive functions (sewing, reaping, etc.) • Zhou rulers were the nobles with family names, and they practiced ancestor worship • Eastern Zhou • Also known as the E.Z. period • The decline of ancient forms of religion began and the transformation into Confucianism and Daoism started • The uniqueness of China’s recorded history began • Collection of documents
Resources http://library.thinkquest.org/12255/library/dynasty/zhou.html http://www.thenagain.info/WebChron/China/Zhou.html http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/cot/t3w10zhoudynasty.htm www.chinatour360.com http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/114678/Zhou-dynasty http://library.thinkquest.org/12255/library/dynasty/zhou.html