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Philip C Longhurst Corporate Fiber Optic R & D Manager. Topics to be covered. LEMO 3K.93C – the global standard Pre-terminated contact Maintenance, repair and operational issues Inspection and cleaning – it’s easy! MEERKAT Electro- optic converters for Legacy Triax

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Presentation Transcript

Philip C Longhurst

Corporate Fiber Optic R & D Manager

New York. 2007

topics to be covered
Topics to be covered
  • LEMO 3K.93C – the global standard
  • Pre-terminated contact
  • Maintenance, repair and operational issues Inspection and cleaning – it’s easy!
  • MEERKAT Electro- optic converters for Legacy Triax
  • SERBAL converter for HD-SDi
  • Summary

New York. 2007

connector options
Connector Options
  • Number of different fibre connectors
  • However, in fundamental design, few choices are available:
    • Optical contacts can be either butt joint or lensed ( expanded beam)
    • Fibre retention in the optical contacts can be “Epoxy and polish” or utilise some form of mechanical splice behind a pre-terminated ferrule.
    • Coupling mechanisms can be push – pull or screw / bayonet
    • Connector shells can be plug and socket, or hermaphroditic
    • Keying and the ability to easily “blind mate” is essential
  • Standards are vital to ensure compatibility between different users systems

New York. 2007

connector comparisons
Connector Comparisons
  • Expanded beam contact.

+ Cleaning simple with no special cleaning materials required. Good back reflection results.

-High price. More complicated to terminate. Larger than other options. High attenuation - limited number of connections per system feasible. Not field repairable. Not compatible with global standard.

  • Butt joint, 1.25mm pre-terminated contact.

+ Good attenuation. Good back reflection results. Can be field terminated. Push-pull for quick connection.

-High price. Larger than other options. Limited life - should only be used for emergency repair. Poor yield. Not compatible with global standard.

  • Butt joint, 2.0mm contact (Lemo 3K.93C)

+ Excellent attenuation - multiple links feasible (e.g. 10 connections). Good back reflection results. Smallest size (compatible with cable diameter). Simple to clean. Proven reliability - global standard. Push-pull for quick connection.

-Could not be field terminated (until now).

New York. 2007

common connector options
Common Connector Options

The critical differences between hybrid connectors are as follows:

Attenuation (typical)

  • LEMO 3K.93C 0.1dB
  • Stratos HX-1080 0.75dB
  • Fischer 1053 0.5dB
  • Tajimi OPS9240 0.5dB max

Return loss (typical)

  • LEMO 3K.93C >45dB
  • Stratos HX-1080 >45dB
  • Fischer 1053 >50dB
  • Tajimi OPS9240 >30 -50dB


  • LEMO 3K.93C 94mm long x 19.5mm dia
  • Stratos HX-1080 158mm long x 35mm dia
  • Fischer 1053 101mm long x 23mm dia
  • Tajimi OPS9240 125mm long x 26.5mm dia

Mating endurance

  • LEMO 3K.93C >20,000 cycles
  • Tajimi OPS9240 >5000 cycles
  • Stratos HX-1080 >2,000 cycles
  • Fischer 1053 > 500 cycles

(Note: all data above taken from the relevant manufacturer’s published data sheet)

New York. 2007

  • 1994 ARIB conducted extensive testing over a 2 year period on cables and connectors
  • Tests evaluated best connector and cable combination for system requirements and outside broadcast environment. LEMO3K.93C selected.
  • 1997 ARIB Standard BTA S-1005B issued
  • 1998 SMPTE issued Standard 304M -gives details of the connector mating interface and optical & electrical performance.
  • SMPTE also issued Standard 311M to cover a hybrid fibre optic cable.
  • Standards 304M and 311M linked by cross reference and referral.
  • In 1999 the European Broadcast Union (EBU) Committee PMC published the EBU Technical Recommendation R100-1999 “Connectors for camera cables with fibre Optical transmission”
  • UL recognition obtained:- File No E119802
  • EC-attestation of conformity - Rec’d 2000. File N° = N8 00 03 39058 001
  • 2007 – SMPTE 304M under review and being updated to better reflect the actual product.

New York. 2007

lemo 3k 93c the global standard
LEMO 3K.93C – The Global Standard


  • Specifically designed for HDTV to meet the ARIB requirements
  • Rugged Construction
  • 11 models available
  • Push- Pull latching
  • Fully Floating Fibre optic contact
  • Contains 2 fibre + 2 power + 2 signal contacts
  • 5 key style for “blind mating”
  • Environmentally sealed to IP68 (per IEC 60529)
  • Easily cleanable in service
  • Field repair solution available.

New York. 2007

lemo 3k 93c the global standard9
LEMO 3K.93C – The Global Standard

Low insertion loss 0.10dB single mode mean

Return loss >45dB - UPC machine polish

Temperature range -40oC to +85oC

Humidity +40oC, 93 % RH, 96 hours

Impact 3 Drops, 2 metres on to concrete

Torsion With 294N axial load , 300 cycles +/- 180o

Cable Retention >1000N

Environment Protection Sealed to IP68

Mechanical endurance > 10,000 matings

Water Immersion 1.5m for 48 Hours

Dust 500 matings - separation distance of 20cm in a test chamber with floating dust at 5mg/m3.

Other tests Insulation resistance, Voltage proof, Contact resistance, vibration, shock, corrosion, coupling strength, contact retention, coupling force.

What was provided to meet Japanese ARIB performance requirements:

New York. 2007

lemo 3k 93c pedigree
LEMO 3K.93C pedigree

Known Usage

  • More than 50,000 3K.93C connectors have been sold to date for use in the global broadcast market.
  • Approximately 10% have been used for camera mounted product and 90% for cable assemblies.
  • Cable assemblies used for all outside broadcast, studio floor, and fixed installations such as stadiums, theatres and general infrastructure applications
  • Markets to date have been mainly Japan, USA and Europe.
  • Now selected by Beijing Olympic Broadcasting Co. (BOB) for the Beijing Olympics

New York. 2007

some key 3k 93c installations
Some Key 3K.93C Installations
  • 1996 The Portland Trailblazers Arena
  • 1996 Atlanta Olympics Panasonic Broadcast TV Systems
  • 1998 Winter Olympics, Nagano, Japan. (350 cable assemblies)
  • 1999 USA TV Installations (Madison Square Garden Network, The Tonight Show with Jay Leno)
  • 2000 Japanese TV networks converted 100% HD - Fuji, NHK, Wowow, NTV, Kansai
  • 2001 Korea Networks start up HDTV - SBS, KBS
  • 2002 Football World Cup Japan / Korea
  • 2003 Australian TV networks start up- TV7, TV 9, Global, ABC
  • 2004 European football championships
  • 2004 Athens Olympics
  • 2005 Royal Opera House –London
  • 2005 Danish Radio and TV New Media House
  • 2005 NHK Silk Road programme production through desert terrain
  • 2006 Turin Winter Olympics
  • 2006 CBC (Canada) Updated HDTV Studios
  • 2006 Football World Cup, Germany
  • 2006 Wimbledon for BBC & Ryder Cup golf for Telegenic
  • 2007 UK Premier League football grounds
  • Wide range of OB vans for Sport,(e.g. Formula 1, etc.) and other uses

New York. 2007

cable comparisons choices
Cable comparisons / choices
  • SMPTE 311 is primary cable specification for broadcast situations, with 6 main manufacturers.
  • Significantly varying properties. Some more suited for indoor applications and some to harsher OB environments
  • Important to evaluate cable test data and users’ experience
  • For Outside Broadcast applications, tensile strength, crush resistance, abrasion and tear resistance and repeated bend/twist capability are all critical features.
  • For in building use greater flexibility and flame / smoke retardence are required

New York. 2007

cable supply and crucial factors
Cable supply and crucial factors
  • The most common cable suppliers are:



Clark Wire and Cable




  • Factors that affect cable reliability are:
    • Extent of braid coverage - SMPTE states 82% which is probably too low for OB
    • Fibre material - e.g. pvc jacketed vs nylon jacketed.
    • Cushioning material - polypropylene vs cotton
    • Cable manufacturing construction. Fibre is delicate and excessive movement within the cable can result in micro- bending of fibre and signal failure - good cable construction and materials is essential for reliability.

New York. 2007

maintenance repair concepts issues
Maintenance & repair concepts/ issues
  • Fibre optic contacts need to be inspected and kept clean, just like a camera lens
  • Maintenance is simple process of regular inspection & cleaning when necessary.
  • If an O.B cable gets damaged, best solution is to run out a spare factory terminated cable.
  • However, there are occasions when “field termination” can be needed.
  • Pre-terminated contacts or fibre splicing can provide field solutions
  • Compatibility increases flexibility. The benefit of global standards ARIB & SMPTE 304M is availability of spare cables

Maintenance and repair of cable / connector infrastructure is of primary concern to users.

New York. 2007

  • For reliable operation of the system it is essential for the ferrule end faces of any fibre optic contact to be clean and free from any debris
  • It is strongly recommended that ferrule end faces are regularly inspected in-situ using commercially available video inspection microscope e.g. Lightel.
  • Essential to clean contacts on both sides of a mated pair if one is dirty.

New York. 2007

cleaning procedures
Cleaning Procedures

The Process

  • Cleaning the LEMO contact is very simple using cotton buds.
    • If necessary, remove alignment sleeve using removal tool.
    • Clean ferrule end face using one cotton bud soaked in Alcohol, then dry the end face using a second dry cotton bud.
    • If alignment sleeve has been removed, replace the alignment sleeve. Note: It must “click” home.
    • Blister pack buds are pre-soaked
  • NOTE: Alignment sleeve is retained on the tool throughout the process, so it cannot become lost or contaminated.
  • 3 other common methods - Hux cleaner, FerruleMate and Aefos AFC3000. Useful for emergencies/OB use.
  • If such tools used, regular maintenance using cotton buds still recommended

New York. 2007

cleaning before and after pictures
Cleaning Before and After Pictures

Visual examples of cleaning using the four processes

Dirty contacts before cleaning


S-G Ferrule Mate


Cotton Buds

New York. 2007

maintenance procedures
Maintenance procedures


  • A good cleaning process is essential for the correct performance of anyfibre optic system
  • The use of an inspection scope is vital to determine if cleaning is needed – Rule is “If it isn’t dirty don’t touch it”
  • Proprietary cleaners are available but produce mixed results.
  • The best ( and lowest cost) solution is still the use of Cotton buds and alcohol
  • Remember: If the alignment device has been removed during the cleaning process it must be replaced and “clicked” home.

New York. 2007



New York. 2007


New York. 2007

meerkat triax to fibre camera independent
MEERKAT (Triax to Fibre) – Camera Independent
  • Triax connection between camera & CCU carries AM + FM channels + power.
    • AM channels carries camera picture in two bands Green and Red / Blue from camera to CCU, return External Video & Teleprompt Video
    • FM channels carry bi-directional intercom + data, and audio signal from camera to CCU.
  • Signal’s position within the AM and FM bands depends upon the camera manufacturer
  • The Meerkat scans the whole of both bands for any signals, then encodes them and digitally transmits them.
  • This is what makes it camera independent

New York. 2007

meerkat specification
MEERKAT Specification


  • Dimensions: 125W x 270L x 50H mm
  • Mass (approx.) 
  • Power requirements
    • United States: 100 to 120 VAC, 50/60Hz 
    • Other countries: 220 to 240 VAC, 50/60 Hz
  • Power consumption: 16 W
  • Operating voltage: 12 Vdc / 2.5 A
  • Operating temperature: "-20°C to +55°C“
  • Humidity: up to +95%Index protection IP66 (when mated)


  • Optical receiver sensitivity: -3dB to -21dB
  • Data rate: 5GB/s (2 x 2.5 GB/s)
  • Optical transmitter output: 200µW (250µW max)
    • Optical Launch power: -6dB @1310

-4.5dB @ 1550

    • Optical receiver Sensitivity: -30dB @ 1310

-30dB @ 1550

  • Transmitted wavelength: 1310nm /1550 nm multiplexed on each fibre.

Supplied accessories

  • Fuse x 2 AC/DC
  • Adaptor x 3 AC/DC
  • power supply x 1
  • User's guide x 1

New York. 2007

meerkat triax to fibre
MEERKAT (Triax to Fibre)


  • Plug and Play solution converting electronic signal to fibre
  • Suitable for use with number of SD Triax camera / CCU systems
  • Uses Standard 3K.93C hybrid connectors and cabling - provides future proof solution for growing use of high definition cameras
  • Can power camera from the O.B van for distances of up to 2km
  • LED indicators for system functionality check
  • Small, light weight
  • Ruggedised for external harsh environment use.
  • Local powering from 12 volt battery pack.
  • In line transformer and other accessories under development: - due Q4 07

New York. 2007



New York. 2007


New York. 2007

serbal application and usage
SERBAL application and usage
  • The SERBAL takes the External Video out signal (with pre-embedded audio) from the 75 Ohms BNC camera connection to the CCU and allows up to four separate camera channels to be transmitted at one time over the standard SMPTE 311 cable (or any other 2 fibre cable)
  • The SERBAL can provide either
    • 4 TX to RX channels in one direction
    • 2TX / RX channels in both directions
    • 3TX channels in one direction and 1 in the other.
  • One use of the return channels is for the camera man’s video to allow him to align his picture with what is currently being shown
  • The SERBAL also has a useful application in taking the HD / SDI signals from the OB van to the remote satellite uplink.
  • It also covers “Dual Link” applications where the transmission of 3Gbit/s is required.

New York. 2007



  • Size: 172 x 125 x 50mm
  • Weight: 2Kg
  • Electrical connections: BNC 75 Ohm

12V power @1.5A max.

  • Fibre Optic / Hybrid cable: SMPTE 311M
  • Fibre Optic connectors: LEMO 3K.93C
  • Transmission Wavelengths: 1300nm / 1550nm
  • Optical Launch power: -6dB @1310

-4.5dB @ 1550

  • Optical receiver Sensitivity: -30dB @ 1310

-30dB @ 1550

  • Equalisation (camera side): 300m @ 270Mb/s

100m @ 1485 Gb/s

  • Temperature range: -20C to +55C

New York. 2007

  • Plug and Play solution with electronic signal conversion to fibre
  • Ruggedised for external harsh environment use.
  • A 4 channel multiplexer for HD/SDI conversion
  • Allows output from up to 4 cameras to be transmitted over one standard LEMO 3K.93C SMPTE Cable
  • Camera inputs from standard 75 Ohm Coax connectors
  • Has LED indicators for system functionality check
  • Passes pre-embedded audio
  • Supports all NRZI (Non-return-to-zero, inverted) data formats from 10 Mb/s to 1.5 Gb/s
  • Signal formats: HD/SDI, SMPTE 292M, SDI, DVB-ASI, 19.4 Mb/s SMPTE 310, 142-540 Mb/s SMPTE 259M, SDTI, also covers “Dual Link”

New York. 2007

ethernet media converters

Ethernet Media Converters

Solutions for replacement

of copper with fibre systems

New York. 2007

100baset ethernet converters
100BaseT Ethernet Converters
  • A plug and play inline Media Converter :
  • Styles:
    • Free or panel mount models
    • Custom or LEMO connector on electrical side
    • LEMO 3K.03A on optical side
  • Features
    • Fibre type: Single mode 9/125 µm
    • Wavelength: 1310nm
    • Temperature Range: -20°C to +85°C
    • Electrical inputs: 10/100BaseT Ethernet 5V supply (280mA)
    • LD Optical Output: 250µW (Typical)
    • Photodiode Sensitivity: -37 to -5dBm
    • Data Rate: 125Mbps (Max.)
    • Transmission Distance: >20km

New York. 2007

100baset ethernet converters34
100BaseT Ethernet Converters

Flying models with electrical cable :

New York. 2007

100baset ethernet converters35
100BaseT Ethernet Converters

Plug and Socketversion :

New York. 2007

100baset ethernet converters36
100BaseT Ethernet Converters

Status :

  • A cable tailed version to a Mil-C-38999 connector has been produced for sale to a South African Company. This required compliance to a very rigorous specification.
  • As part of the process the Ethernet Media converter has passed qualification approval to this specification, which includes EMC testing, vibration, dust , drop, and temp cycle.
  • Test reports are now available.
  • Prototypes of different styles are being produced.
    • 3K optical free socket to 1K electrical socket
    • 3K optical free socket on electrical cable
    • 3K optical plug on electrical cable
    • 3K optical fixed socket on electrical cable
  • A Gigabit version is now being developed

New York. 2007

why choose lemo
Why choose LEMO

LEMO service

  • LEMO has a dedicated Fibre Optic Centre of Excellence for detailed technical support to any Customer.
  • Customer termination training courses offered at either LEMO’s facility or customer premises.
  • Approved termination houses worldwide.
  • A mobile field termination kit available for hire for on-site termination of studio or facility infrastructure
  • Alternatively pre-terminated patch cords are available for fibre splicing at installations where appropriate.
  • LEMO provides the “one stop shop”

New York. 2007

why choose lemo 3k 93c
Why choose LEMO 3K.93C?

The Product

  • 3K.93C connector has proven track record over the last 10 years of giving excellent performance.
  • It is a low loss connector ;- allows multiple cable assemblies to be linked together
  • The standard Stainless Steel version is strong & highly reliable (>20,000 matings)
  • The 3K.93C is the global standard – with ready availability of assemblies in emergencies from many sources including hire companies
  • A field repair pre-terminated version of the F2 contact is now available, that is fully compatible with the existing epoxy and polish version.
  • A triax converter is now available which will enable use of SD cameras over a fibre infrastructure with the same connectors (See MEERKAT)
  • A four channel HD/SDI converter is available which will use the SMPTE fibre infrastructure, for longer distance transmission. (See SERBAL)

New York. 2007

fibre links
Fibre links


  • The LEMO 3K.93C connector was specifically designed and proven to meet all the requirements of all the ARIB, SMPTE and EBU Standards and has become the global standard . It is “the original” SMPTE 304M High definition connector
  • Cable assemblies are widely available globally as a result
  • When terminated correctly to high quality cable, the assemblies will provide reliably consistent high performance in all broadcast situations
  • Regular care and maintenance (cleaning) will result in continued high performance and long life
  • With the LEMO 3K.93C, you can use both HD fibre cameras and legacy Triax cameras over the same cable systems using the MEERKAT and / or the SERBAL
  • The Options are open – the choice is yours, but The Best Choice Is LEMO

New York. 2007